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Former investment bank FX trader: Risk management part 3/3

Former investment bank FX trader: Risk management part 3/3
Welcome to the third and final part of this chapter.
Thank you all for the 100s of comments and upvotes - maybe this post will take us above 1,000 for this topic!
Keep any feedback or questions coming in the replies below.
Before you read this note, please start with Part I and then Part II so it hangs together and makes sense.
Part III
  • Squeezes and other risks
  • Market positioning
  • Bet correlation
  • Crap trades, timeouts and monthly limits

Squeezes and other risks

We are going to cover three common risks that traders face: events; squeezes, asymmetric bets.

Events

Economic releases can cause large short-term volatility. The most famous is Non Farm Payrolls, which is the most widely watched measure of US employment levels and affects the price of many instruments.On an NFP announcement currencies like EURUSD might jump (or drop) 100 pips no problem.
This is fine and there are trading strategies that one may employ around this but the key thing is to be aware of these releases.You can find economic calendars all over the internet - including on this site - and you need only check if there are any major releases each day or week.
For example, if you are trading off some intraday chart and scalping a few pips here and there it would be highly sensible to go into a known data release flat as it is pure coin-toss and not the reason for your trading. It only takes five minutes each day to plan for the day ahead so do not get caught out by this. Many retail traders get stopped out on such events when price volatility is at its peak.

Squeezes

Short squeezes bring a lot of danger and perhaps some opportunity.
The story of VW and Porsche is the best short squeeze ever. Throughout these articles we've used FX examples wherever possible but in this one instance the concept (which is also highly relevant in FX) is best illustrated with an historical lesson from a different asset class.
A short squeeze is when a participant ends up in a short position they are forced to cover. Especially when the rest of the market knows that this participant can be bullied into stopping out at terrible levels, provided the market can briefly drive the price into their pain zone.

There's a reason for the car, don't worry
Hedge funds had been shorting VW stock. However the amount of VW stock available to buy in the open market was actually quite limited. The local government owned a chunk and Porsche itself had bought and locked away around 30%. Neither of these would sell to the hedge-funds so a good amount of the stock was un-buyable at any price.
If you sell or short a stock you must be prepared to buy it back to go flat at some point.
To cut a long story short, Porsche bought a lot of call options on VW stock. These options gave them the right to purchase VW stock from banks at slightly above market price.
Eventually the banks who had sold these options realised there was no VW stock to go out and buy since the German government wouldn’t sell its allocation and Porsche wouldn’t either. If Porsche called in the options the banks were in trouble.
Porsche called in the options which forced the shorts to buy stock - at whatever price they could get it.
The price squeezed higher as those that were short got massively squeezed and stopped out. For one brief moment in 2008, VW was the world’s most valuable company. Shorts were burned hard.

Incredible event
Porsche apparently made $11.5 billion on the trade. The BBC described Porsche as “a hedge fund with a carmaker attached.”
If this all seems exotic then know that the same thing happens in FX all the time. If everyone in the market is talking about a key level in EURUSD being 1.2050 then you can bet the market will try to push through 1.2050 just to take out any short stops at that level. Whether it then rallies higher or fails and trades back lower is a different matter entirely.
This brings us on to the matter of crowded trades. We will look at positioning in more detail in the next section. Crowded trades are dangerous for PNL. If everyone believes EURUSD is going down and has already sold EURUSD then you run the risk of a short squeeze.
For additional selling to take place you need a very good reason for people to add to their position whereas a move in the other direction could force mass buying to cover their shorts.
A trading mentor when I worked at the investment bank once advised me:
Always think about which move would cause the maximum people the maximum pain. That move is precisely what you should be watching out for at all times.

Asymmetric losses

Also known as picking up pennies in front of a steamroller. This risk has caught out many a retail trader. Sometimes it is referred to as a "negative skew" strategy.
Ideally what you are looking for is asymmetric risk trade set-ups: that is where the downside is clearly defined and smaller than the upside. What you want to avoid is the opposite.
A famous example of this going wrong was the Swiss National Bank de-peg in 2012.
The Swiss National Bank had said they would defend the price of EURCHF so that it did not go below 1.2. Many people believed it could never go below 1.2 due to this. Many retail traders therefore opted for a strategy that some describe as ‘picking up pennies in front of a steam-roller’.
They would would buy EURCHF above the peg level and hope for a tiny rally of several pips before selling them back and keep doing this repeatedly. Often they were highly leveraged at 100:1 so that they could amplify the profit of the tiny 5-10 pip rally.
Then this happened.

Something that changed FX markets forever
The SNB suddenly did the unthinkable. They stopped defending the price. CHF jumped and so EURCHF (the number of CHF per 1 EUR) dropped to new lows very fast. Clearly, this trade had horrific risk : reward asymmetry: you risked 30% to make 0.05%.
Other strategies like naively selling options have the same result. You win a small amount of money each day and then spectacularly blow up at some point down the line.

Market positioning

We have talked about short squeezes. But how do you know what the market position is? And should you care?
Let’s start with the first. You should definitely care.
Let’s imagine the entire market is exceptionally long EURUSD and positioning reaches extreme levels. This makes EURUSD very vulnerable.
To keep the price going higher EURUSD needs to attract fresh buy orders. If everyone is already long and has no room to add, what can incentivise people to keep buying? The news flow might be good. They may believe EURUSD goes higher. But they have already bought and have their maximum position on.
On the flip side, if there’s an unexpected event and EURUSD gaps lower you will have the entire market trying to exit the position at the same time. Like a herd of cows running through a single doorway. Messy.
We are going to look at this in more detail in a later chapter, where we discuss ‘carry’ trades. For now this TRYJPY chart might provide some idea of what a rush to the exits of a crowded position looks like.

A carry trade position clear-out in action
Knowing if the market is currently at extreme levels of long or short can therefore be helpful.
The CFTC makes available a weekly report, which details the overall positions of speculative traders “Non Commercial Traders” in some of the major futures products. This includes futures tied to deliverable FX pairs such as EURUSD as well as products such as gold. The report is called “CFTC Commitments of Traders” ("COT").
This is a great benchmark. It is far more representative of the overall market than the proprietary ones offered by retail brokers as it covers a far larger cross-section of the institutional market.
Generally market participants will not pay a lot of attention to commercial hedgers, which are also detailed in the report. This data is worth tracking but these folks are simply hedging real-world transactions rather than speculating so their activity is far less revealing and far more noisy.
You can find the data online for free and download it directly here.

Raw format is kinda hard to work with

However, many websites will chart this for you free of charge and you may find it more convenient to look at it that way. Just google “CFTC positioning charts”.

But you can easily get visualisations
You can visually spot extreme positioning. It is extremely powerful.
Bear in mind the reports come out Friday afternoon US time and the report is a snapshot up to the prior Tuesday. That means it is a lagged report - by the time it is released it is a few days out of date. For longer term trades where you hold positions for weeks this is of course still pretty helpful information.
As well as the absolute level (is the speculative market net long or short) you can also use this to pick up on changes in positioning.
For example if bad news comes out how much does the net short increase? If good news comes out, the market may remain net short but how much did they buy back?
A lot of traders ask themselves “Does the market have this trade on?” The positioning data is a good method for answering this. It provides a good finger on the pulse of the wider market sentiment and activity.
For example you might say: “There was lots of noise about the good employment numbers in the US. However, there wasn’t actually a lot of position change on the back of it. Maybe everyone who wants to buy already has. What would happen now if bad news came out?”
In general traders will be wary of entering a crowded position because it will be hard to attract additional buyers or sellers and there could be an aggressive exit.
If you want to enter a trade that is showing extreme levels of positioning you must think carefully about this dynamic.

Bet correlation

Retail traders often drastically underestimate how correlated their bets are.
Through bitter experience, I have learned that a mistake in position correlation is the root of some of the most serious problems in trading. If you have eight highly correlated positions, then you are really trading one position that is eight times as large.
Bruce Kovner of hedge fund, Caxton Associates
For example, if you are trading a bunch of pairs against the USD you will end up with a simply huge USD exposure. A single USD-trigger can ruin all your bets. Your ideal scenario — and it isn’t always possible — would be to have a highly diversified portfolio of bets that do not move in tandem.
Look at this chart. Inverted USD index (DXY) is green. AUDUSD is orange. EURUSD is blue.

Chart from TradingView
So the whole thing is just one big USD trade! If you are long AUDUSD, long EURUSD, and short DXY you have three anti USD bets that are all likely to work or fail together.
The more diversified your portfolio of bets are, the more risk you can take on each.
There’s a really good video, explaining the benefits of diversification from Ray Dalio.
A systematic fund with access to an investable universe of 10,000 instruments has more opportunity to make a better risk-adjusted return than a trader who only focuses on three symbols. Diversification really is the closest thing to a free lunch in finance.
But let’s be pragmatic and realistic. Human retail traders don’t have capacity to run even one hundred bets at a time. More realistic would be an average of 2-3 trades on simultaneously. So what can be done?
For example:
  • You might diversify across time horizons by having a mix of short-term and long-term trades.
  • You might diversify across asset classes - trading some FX but also crypto and equities.
  • You might diversify your trade generation approach so you are not relying on the same indicators or drivers on each trade.
  • You might diversify your exposure to the market regime by having some trades that assume a trend will continue (momentum) and some that assume we will be range-bound (carry).
And so on. Basically you want to scan your portfolio of trades and make sure you are not putting all your eggs in one basket. If some trades underperform others will perform - assuming the bets are not correlated - and that way you can ensure your overall portfolio takes less risk per unit of return.
The key thing is to start thinking about a portfolio of bets and what each new trade offers to your existing portfolio of risk. Will it diversify or amplify a current exposure?

Crap trades, timeouts and monthly limits

One common mistake is to get bored and restless and put on crap trades. This just means trades in which you have low conviction.
It is perfectly fine not to trade. If you feel like you do not understand the market at a particular point, simply choose not to trade.
Flat is a position.
Do not waste your bullets on rubbish trades. Only enter a trade when you have carefully considered it from all angles and feel good about the risk. This will make it far easier to hold onto the trade if it moves against you at any point. You actually believe in it.
Equally, you need to set monthly limits. A standard limit might be a 10% account balance stop per month. At that point you close all your positions immediately and stop trading till next month.

Be strict with yourself and walk away
Let’s assume you started the year with $100k and made 5% in January so enter Feb with $105k balance. Your stop is therefore 10% of $105k or $10.5k . If your account balance dips to $94.5k ($105k-$10.5k) then you stop yourself out and don’t resume trading till March the first.
Having monthly calendar breaks is nice for another reason. Say you made a load of money in January. You don’t want to start February feeling you are up 5% or it is too tempting to avoid trading all month and protect the existing win. Each month and each year should feel like a clean slate and an independent period.
Everyone has trading slumps. It is perfectly normal. It will definitely happen to you at some stage. The trick is to take a break and refocus. Conserve your capital by not trading a lot whilst you are on a losing streak. This period will be much harder for you emotionally and you’ll end up making suboptimal decisions. An enforced break will help you see the bigger picture.
Put in place a process before you start trading and then it’ll be easy to follow and will feel much less emotional. Remember: the market doesn’t care if you win or lose, it is nothing personal.
When your head has cooled and you feel calm you return the next month and begin the task of building back your account balance.

That's a wrap on risk management

Thanks for taking time to read this three-part chapter on risk management. I hope you enjoyed it. Do comment in the replies if you have any questions or feedback.
Remember: the most important part of trading is not making money. It is not losing money. Always start with that principle. I hope these three notes have provided some food for thought on how you might approach risk management and are of practical use to you when trading. Avoiding mistakes is not a sexy tagline but it is an effective and reliable way to improve results.
Next up I will be writing about an exciting topic I think many traders should look at rather differently: news trading. Please follow on here to receive notifications and the broad outline is below.
News Trading Part I
  • Introduction
  • Why use the economic calendar
  • Reading the economic calendar
  • Knowing what's priced in
  • Surveys
  • Interest rates
  • First order thinking vs second order thinking
News Trading Part II
  • Preparing for quantitative and qualitative releases
  • Data surprise index
  • Using recent events to predict future reactions
  • Buy the rumour, sell the fact
  • The mysterious 'position trim' effect
  • Reversals
  • Some key FX releases
***

Disclaimer:This content is not investment advice and you should not place any reliance on it. The views expressed are the author's own and should not be attributed to any other person, including their employer.
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No, the British did not steal $45 trillion from India

This is an updated copy of the version on BadHistory. I plan to update it in accordance with the feedback I got.
I'd like to thank two people who will remain anonymous for helping me greatly with this post (you know who you are)
Three years ago a festschrift for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri was published by Shubhra Chakrabarti, a history teacher at the University of Delhi and Utsa Patnaik, a Marxist economist who taught at JNU until 2010.
One of the essays in the festschirt by Utsa Patnaik was an attempt to quantify the "drain" undergone by India during British Rule. Her conclusion? Britain robbed India of $45 trillion (or £9.2 trillion) during their 200 or so years of rule. This figure was immensely popular, and got republished in several major news outlets (here, here, here, here (they get the number wrong) and more recently here), got a mention from the Minister of External Affairs & returns 29,100 results on Google. There's also plenty of references to it here on Reddit.
Patnaik is not the first to calculate such a figure. Angus Maddison thought it was £100 million, Simon Digby said £1 billion, Javier Estaban said £40 million see Roy (2019). The huge range of figures should set off some alarm bells.
So how did Patnaik calculate this (shockingly large) figure? Well, even though I don't have access to the festschrift, she conveniently has written an article detailing her methodology here. Let's have a look.
How exactly did the British manage to diddle us and drain our wealth’ ? was the question that Basudev Chatterjee (later editor of a volume in the Towards Freedom project) had posed to me 50 years ago when we were fellow-students abroad.
This is begging the question.
After decades of research I find that using India’s commodity export surplus as the measure and applying an interest rate of 5%, the total drain from 1765 to 1938, compounded up to 2016, comes to £9.2 trillion; since $4.86 exchanged for £1 those days, this sum equals about $45 trillion.
This is completely meaningless. To understand why it's meaningless consider India's annual coconut exports. These are almost certainly a surplus but the surplus in trade is countered by the other country buying the product (indeed, by definition, trade surpluses contribute to the GDP of a nation which hardly plays into intuitive conceptualisations of drain).
Furthermore, Dewey (2019) critiques the 5% interest rate.
She [Patnaik] consistently adopts statistical assumptions (such as compound interest at a rate of 5% per annum over centuries) that exaggerate the magnitude of the drain
Moving on:
The exact mechanism of drain, or transfers from India to Britain was quite simple.
Convenient.
Drain theory possessed the political merit of being easily grasped by a nation of peasants. [...] No other idea could arouse people than the thought that they were being taxed so that others in far off lands might live in comfort. [...] It was, therefore, inevitable that the drain theory became the main staple of nationalist political agitation during the Gandhian era.
- Chandra et al. (1989)
The key factor was Britain’s control over our taxation revenues combined with control over India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its booming commodity export surplus with the world. Simply put, Britain used locally raised rupee tax revenues to pay for its net import of goods, a highly abnormal use of budgetary funds not seen in any sovereign country.
The issue with figures like these is they all make certain methodological assumptions that are impossible to prove. From Roy in Frankema et al. (2019):
the "drain theory" of Indian poverty cannot be tested with evidence, for several reasons. First, it rests on the counterfactual that any money saved on account of factor payments abroad would translate into domestic investment, which can never be proved. Second, it rests on "the primitive notion that all payments to foreigners are "drain"", that is, on the assumption that these payments did not contribute to domestic national income to the equivalent extent (Kumar 1985, 384; see also Chaudhuri 1968). Again, this cannot be tested. [...] Fourth, while British officers serving India did receive salaries that were many times that of the average income in India, a paper using cross-country data shows that colonies with better paid officers were governed better (Jones 2013).
Indeed, drain theory rests on some very weak foundations. This, in of itself, should be enough to dismiss any of the other figures that get thrown out. Nonetheless, I felt it would be a useful exercise to continue exploring Patnaik's take on drain theory.
The East India Company from 1765 onwards allocated every year up to one-third of Indian budgetary revenues net of collection costs, to buy a large volume of goods for direct import into Britain, far in excess of that country’s own needs.
So what's going on here? Well Roy (2019) explains it better:
Colonial India ran an export surplus, which, together with foreign investment, was used to pay for services purchased from Britain. These payments included interest on public debt, salaries, and pensions paid to government offcers who had come from Britain, salaries of managers and engineers, guaranteed profts paid to railway companies, and repatriated business profts. How do we know that any of these payments involved paying too much? The answer is we do not.
So what was really happening is the government was paying its workers for services (as well as guaranteeing profits - to promote investment - something the GoI does today Dalal (2019), and promoting business in India), and those workers were remitting some of that money to Britain. This is hardly a drain (unless, of course, Indian diaspora around the world today are "draining" it). In some cases, the remittances would take the form of goods (as described) see Chaudhuri (1983):
It is obvious that these debit items were financed through the export surplus on merchandise account, and later, when railway construction started on a large scale in India, through capital import. Until 1833 the East India Company followed a cumbersome method in remitting the annual home charges. This was to purchase export commodities in India out of revenue, which were then shipped to London and the proceeds from their sale handed over to the home treasury.
While Roy's earlier point argues better paid officers governed better, it is honestly impossible to say what part of the repatriated export surplus was a drain, and what was not. However calling all of it a drain is definitely misguided.
It's worth noting that Patnaik seems to make no attempt to quantify the benefits of the Raj either, Dewey (2019)'s 2nd criticism:
she [Patnaik] consistently ignores research that would tend to cut the economic impact of the drain down to size, such as the work on the sources of investment during the industrial revolution (which shows that industrialisation was financed by the ploughed-back profits of industrialists) or the costs of empire school (which stresses the high price of imperial defence)

Since tropical goods were highly prized in other cold temperate countries which could never produce them, in effect these free goods represented international purchasing power for Britain which kept a part for its own use and re-exported the balance to other countries in Europe and North America against import of food grains, iron and other goods in which it was deficient.
Re-exports necessarily adds value to goods when the goods are processed and when the goods are transported. The country with the largest navy at the time would presumably be in very good stead to do the latter.
The British historians Phyllis Deane and WA Cole presented an incorrect estimate of Britain’s 18th-19th century trade volume, by leaving out re-exports completely. I found that by 1800 Britain’s total trade was 62% higher than their estimate, on applying the correct definition of trade including re-exports, that is used by the United Nations and by all other international organisations.
While interesting, and certainly expected for such an old book, re-exporting necessarily adds value to goods.
When the Crown took over from the Company, from 1861 a clever system was developed under which all of India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its fast-rising commodity export surplus with the world, was intercepted and appropriated by Britain. As before up to a third of India’s rising budgetary revenues was not spent domestically but was set aside as ‘expenditure abroad’.
So, what does this mean? Britain appropriated all of India's earnings, and then spent a third of it aboard? Not exactly. She is describing home charges see Roy (2019) again:
Some of the expenditures on defense and administration were made in sterling and went out of the country. This payment by the government was known as the Home Charges. For example, interest payment on loans raised to finance construction of railways and irrigation works, pensions paid to retired officers, and purchase of stores, were payments in sterling. [...] almost all money that the government paid abroad corresponded to the purchase of a service from abroad. [...] The balance of payments system that emerged after 1800 was based on standard business principles. India bought something and paid for it. State revenues were used to pay for wages of people hired abroad, pay for interest on loans raised abroad, and repatriation of profits on foreign investments coming into India. These were legitimate market transactions.
Indeed, if paying for what you buy is drain, then several billions of us are drained every day.
The Secretary of State for India in Council, based in London, invited foreign importers to deposit with him the payment (in gold, sterling and their own currencies) for their net imports from India, and these gold and forex payments disappeared into the yawning maw of the SoS’s account in the Bank of England.
It should be noted that India having two heads was beneficial, and encouraged investment per Roy (2019):
The fact that the India Office in London managed a part of the monetary system made India creditworthy, stabilized its currency, and encouraged foreign savers to put money into railways and private enterprise in India. Current research on the history of public debt shows that stable and large colonies found it easier to borrow abroad than independent economies because the investors trusted the guarantee of the colonist powers.

Against India’s net foreign earnings he issued bills, termed Council bills (CBs), to an equivalent rupee value. The rate (between gold-linked sterling and silver rupee) at which the bills were issued, was carefully adjusted to the last farthing, so that foreigners would never find it more profitable to ship financial gold as payment directly to Indians, compared to using the CB route. Foreign importers then sent the CBs by post or by telegraph to the export houses in India, that via the exchange banks were paid out of the budgeted provision of sums under ‘expenditure abroad’, and the exporters in turn paid the producers (peasants and artisans) from whom they sourced the goods.
Sunderland (2013) argues CBs had two main roles (and neither were part of a grand plot to keep gold out of India):
Council bills had two roles. They firstly promoted trade by handing the IO some control of the rate of exchange and allowing the exchange banks to remit funds to India and to hedge currency transaction risks. They also enabled the Indian government to transfer cash to England for the payment of its UK commitments.

The United Nations (1962) historical data for 1900 to 1960, show that for three decades up to 1928 (and very likely earlier too) India posted the second highest merchandise export surplus in the world, with USA in the first position. Not only were Indians deprived of every bit of the enormous international purchasing power they had earned over 175 years, even its rupee equivalent was not issued to them since not even the colonial government was credited with any part of India’s net gold and forex earnings against which it could issue rupees. The sleight-of-hand employed, namely ‘paying’ producers out of their own taxes, made India’s export surplus unrequited and constituted a tax-financed drain to the metropolis, as had been correctly pointed out by those highly insightful classical writers, Dadabhai Naoroji and RCDutt.
It doesn't appear that others appreciate their insight Roy (2019):
K. N. Chaudhuri rightly calls such practice ‘confused’ economics ‘coloured by political feelings’.

Surplus budgets to effect such heavy tax-financed transfers had a severe employment–reducing and income-deflating effect: mass consumption was squeezed in order to release export goods. Per capita annual foodgrains absorption in British India declined from 210 kg. during the period 1904-09, to 157 kg. during 1937-41, and to only 137 kg by 1946.
Dewey (1978) points out reliability issues with Indian agriculutural statistics, however this calorie decline persists to this day. Some of it is attributed to less food being consumed at home Smith (2015), a lower infectious disease burden Duh & Spears (2016) and diversified diets Vankatesh et al. (2016).
If even a part of its enormous foreign earnings had been credited to it and not entirely siphoned off, India could have imported modern technology to build up an industrial structure as Japan was doing.
This is, unfortunately, impossible to prove. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication that India would've united (this is arguably more plausible than the given counterfactual1). Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been nuked in WW2, much like Japan. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been invaded by lizard people, much like Japan. The list continues eternally.
Nevertheless, I will charitably examine the given counterfactual anyway. Did pre-colonial India have industrial potential? The answer is a resounding no.
From Gupta (1980):
This article starts from the premise that while economic categories - the extent of commodity production, wage labour, monetarisation of the economy, etc - should be the basis for any analysis of the production relations of pre-British India, it is the nature of class struggles arising out of particular class alignments that finally gives the decisive twist to social change. Arguing on this premise, and analysing the available evidence, this article concludes that there was little potential for industrial revolution before the British arrived in India because, whatever might have been the character of economic categories of that period, the class relations had not sufficiently matured to develop productive forces and the required class struggle for a 'revolution' to take place.
A view echoed in Raychaudhuri (1983):
Yet all of this did not amount to an economic situation comparable to that of western Europe on the eve of the industrial revolution. Her technology - in agriculture as well as manufacturers - had by and large been stagnant for centuries. [...] The weakness of the Indian economy in the mid-eighteenth century, as compared to pre-industrial Europe was not simply a matter of technology and commercial and industrial organization. No scientific or geographical revolution formed part of the eighteenth-century Indian's historical experience. [...] Spontaneous movement towards industrialisation is unlikely in such a situation.
So now we've established India did not have industrial potential, was India similar to Japan just before the Meiji era? The answer, yet again, unsurprisingly, is no. Japan's economic situation was not comparable to India's, which allowed for Japan to finance its revolution. From Yasuba (1986):
All in all, the Japanese standard of living may not have been much below the English standard of living before industrialization, and both of them may have been considerably higher than the Indian standard of living. We can no longer say that Japan started from a pathetically low economic level and achieved a rapid or even "miraculous" economic growth. Japan's per capita income was almost as high as in Western Europe before industrialization, and it was possible for Japan to produce surplus in the Meiji Period to finance private and public capital formation.
The circumstances that led to Meiji Japan were extremely unique. See Tomlinson (1985):
Most modern comparisons between India and Japan, written by either Indianists or Japanese specialists, stress instead that industrial growth in Meiji Japan was the product of unique features that were not reproducible elsewhere. [...] it is undoubtably true that Japan's progress to industrialization has been unique and unrepeatable
So there you have it. Unsubstantiated statistical assumptions, calling any number you can a drain & assuming a counterfactual for no good reason gets you this $45 trillion number. Hopefully that's enough to bury it in the ground.
1. Several authors have affirmed that Indian identity is a colonial artefact. For example see Rajan 1969:
Perhaps the single greatest and most enduring impact of British rule over India is that it created an Indian nation, in the modern political sense. After centuries of rule by different dynasties overparts of the Indian sub-continent, and after about 100 years of British rule, Indians ceased to be merely Bengalis, Maharashtrians,or Tamils, linguistically and culturally.
or see Bryant 2000:
But then, it would be anachronistic to condemn eighteenth-century Indians, who served the British, as collaborators, when the notion of 'democratic' nationalism or of an Indian 'nation' did not then exist. [...] Indians who fought for them, differed from the Europeans in having a primary attachment to a non-belligerent religion, family and local chief, which was stronger than any identity they might have with a more remote prince or 'nation'.

Bibliography

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Tsjeng, Zing (2020). How Britain Stole $45 trillion from India with trains | Empires of Dirt. Vice
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Smith, Lisa (2015). The great Indian calorie debate: Explaining rising undernourishment during India’s rapid economic growth. Food Policy
Duh, Josephine & Spears, Dean (2016). Health and Hunger: Disease, Energy Needs, and the Indian Calorie Consumption Puzzle. The Economic Journal
Vankatesh, P. et al. (2016). Relationship between Food Production and Consumption Diversity in India – Empirical Evidences from Cross Section Analysis. Agricultural Economics Research Review
Gupta, Shaibal (1980). Potential of Industrial Revolution in Pre-British India. Economic and Political Weekly
Raychaudhuri, Tapan (1983). I - The mid-eighteenth-century background. Cambridge University Press
Yasuba, Yasukichi (1986). Standard of Living in Japan Before Industrialization: From what Level did Japan Begin? A Comment. The Journal of Economic History
Tomblinson, B.R. (1985). Writing History Sideways: Lessons for Indian Economic Historians from Meiji Japan. Cambridge University Press
Rajan, M.S. (1969). The Impact of British Rule in India. Journal of Contemporary History
Bryant, G.J. (2000). Indigenous Mercenaries in the Service of European Imperialists: The Case of the Sepoys in the Early British Indian Army, 1750-1800. War in History
submitted by GaslightEveryone to u/GaslightEveryone [link] [comments]

Theta gang ain't shit.

Now's a good time for to get a lesson in the greeks you fucking retards. This document outlines the relative risks and rewards of certain trading strategies and how to manage risks along with some basic math and econ. This should be basic for most of you.
Why do stocks go up?
Because capital growth has a diminishing returns to scale. In the long run capital is used to create more capital generating growth until it balances with capital depreciation which is linear. You can increase the equilibrium capital accumulation by increasing savings rates essentially trading off short run consumption for long run consumption. The implications of this are that less capital intensive economies grow at faster rates than developed because developed economies are very close to hitting the equilibrium point and have to rely on technological advancements for long run growth. Not every economy is equal though, all have differences in economic institutions, government effectiveness and political norms which will also affect their long run effectiveness. Long story short if the government engages in ineffective policies like protectionism, price manipulation, overly burdensome regulations, underregulation, or inefficient redistribution programs the short run micro/macro picture will be hurt and reflected in the long run picture. The US has had a thriving stock market despite having relatively low growth because it has taken the first mover advantage in many industries. Global Tech, higher education, finance, and pharma are all centered in the US because the US policies have made doing business in the US the optimal choice for these industries. For as long as the US is a capitalist nation you can be sure that the stock market will go up in the long run. This is not necessarily the case for commodities or forex as higher growth has typically led to investments in productive efficiency outweighing increased demand in raw materials and exchange rates do not have a long run trend. Fundamentally, the stock market is a good place to invest savings into in the long run.
Stocks and exponential returns.
Stocks go up so you want to capture the value of price increases. Stocks have a delta of one and a gamma of zero resulting in a linear return to movement of the stock price. Long run capital accumulation, although diminishing, is still exponential and in the long run will return an exponentially increasing return to investment on stock. Linear gains * exponential increase in underlying = exponential gains. But what if things go down? In the short run stocks decrease in value at exponential rates which is absolutely fantastic for investors because exponential declines are diminishing in scale. 10% of 100 is 10, 10% of 90 is 9, 10% of 81 is less and so on and so forth. You may get linear returns from movement but you receive increasing returns to scale gains on the upside and decreasing returns to scale losses on the downside.
Delta and Gamma
Long options have even better fundamentals than stocks because they amplify the exponentiality through gamma. As an option moves into the money its delta increases creating exponential gains in value. As an option moves out of the money delta decreases, lowering losses. Thus options while having more risk per dollar than stocks have far superior risk returns in the short run.
Theta and Vega
The opposite is true of selling a call and you're put into the position of wanting to sell when times are most dire and hold when times are good. In exchange you get benefit from theta decay but if you can reasonably predict the movement of the market that's pretty much nothing compared to the gains from delta you could get investing the same amount of money into long calls. Selling also requires way more money further reducing its risk to return. But what about vega? When markets crash, volatility skyrockets. Long calls gain and the opposite is true once again for selling them.
Mathematically, buying longs has the best return on risk of any option strategy but higher absolute losses when delta doesn't move in your favor. Selling longs or spreads has a way worse return to risk but you'll lose less money when delta moves against you and it's harder for any one position to lose all of its value.
Theta gang isn't more profitable than bullgang, it's less risky per dollar spent. The reason market makers don't play like WSB retards is because they play on margin and the 20-30% losses we typically take and make back buying longs would cause their investors to flee bankrupting them.
Strategy implications
Longs
Selling naked longs
Credit spreads
Debit spreads
Edit: For what to do with your cash position, you could put it into gold, bonds, bond etfs, non spy correlated stocks or whatever. Low risk theta gang strats are fine in bull markets but don't expect to make real money from them. I'm cash since volatility is high, u do u.
submitted by XXX_KimJongUn_XXX to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]

Immediate Aftermath : The more data we collect and analyze, the clearer the picture becomes.

This is the updated first part of the list that has recorded the notable events as the world deals with the COVID-19 pandemic. [2nd Part] ― The LINKS to events and sources are placed throughout the timeline.
------------------------
The More Data We Collect and Analyze, the Clearer the Picture Becomes.
Someone threw a stone in a pond a long way away. And we're only just feeling the ripples. — Fukuhara from Giri/Haji, Netflix series
------------------------
On Jan 30, Italian PM announced that Italy had blocked all flights to and from China. While Italy has banned people from air-travelling to China, however according to IATA data, there's no measurement implemented for air-travellers from China into Italy till the Mar 07. Especially for Chinese people who have EU passports.
On Jan 31, the US announced the category-I travel restrictions, barring all foreigners who have been in China for the past 14 days, with measures including the refusal of visas and mandatory quarantine.
• "Because the US focused on China and didn't expect the infected people's entry from Europe and the Middle East, the Maginot Line was breached from behind. And so little of credible data at the beginning made the US government to miscalculate its strategic response to the virus." — Dr. Zhang Lun, currently a visiting scholar at Harvard (economics & sociology), during the interview with ICPC on Mar 29.
Also on Jan 31, the WHO changed its tune and declared the coronavirus outbreak a Global Public Health Emergency of international concern (PHEIC).
Decisions on a PHEIC always involve politics .... West African countries discouraged a declaration in 2014 after they were hit by the largest Ebola virus outbreak on record, mainly because of concern about the economic impact.
------------------------
On Feb 02, regarding the US category-I travel restrictions, Kamala Harris, the former Democratic presidential candidate, declared on Twitter:
Since 2017, Trump’s travel bans have never been rooted in national security—they’re about discriminating against people of color. They are, without a doubt, rooted in anti-immigrant, white supremacist ideologies. This travel ban is no different.
On Feb 03, criticizing Trump for his travel restrictions continues. Chinese foreign ministry spokeswoman Hua Chunying (华春莹), a Peking University professors James Liang (梁建章), New York Times, the Nation, OBSERVER, the Boston Globe, Yahoo, and Daily Kos were saying,
it's a "panicky" decision and "racist" or it's "cruel and callous," he's stoking fear for political gains, and the president is "inappropriately overreacting." And professors Liang even said the US ban "will hurt goodwill and cooperation [with China] in the future." [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]
Also on Feb 03, Mr. Tedros of the WHO said there's no need for travel ban measure that "unnecessarily interfere with international travel and trade" trying to halt the spread of the virus.
China's delegate took the floor ... and denounced measures by "some countries" that have denied entry to people holding passports issued in Hubei province - at the centre of the outbreak - and to deny visas and cancel flights.
Also on Feb 03, China is expected to gradually implement a larger stimulus packages (in total) than a USD $572 billion from 2008. — We'd never find out but my guess is that the fund will probably go to Shanghai clique.
On Feb 04, The FDA has given emergency authorization to a new test kit by the CDC that promises to help public health labs meet a potential surge in cases.
The speed ... pushing through a new diagnostic test shows just how seriously they’re taking the potentially pandemic threat of 2019-nCoV. It’s also a sign that the world is starting to learn how to deal with an onslaught of new pathogens.
Also on Feb 04, the Wuhan Institute of Virology and China's Academy of Military Medical Sciences (AMMS, Chief Chen Wei belongs to) have jointly applied to patent the use of Remdesivir. Scientists from both institutes said in a paper published in Nature’s Cell Research that they found both Remdesivir and Chloroquine to be an effective way to inhibit the coronavirus.
On Feb 06, Jamestown Foundation, a Washington-based research & analysis unit, noted that with State Council of PRC praising his performance of containing the pandemic situation, the council expanded Li Keqiang's political control over Politburo Standing Committee of CCP. (Li Keqiang = Communist Youth League = Shanghai clique)
Also, on Feb 06, as the US evacuation planes leave China, the wave of the US evacuees have arrived who are met by the CDC personnel at the quarantine sites for screening, and those who were suspected of infection will be placed under quarantine for 14 days.
Also, on Feb 06, a CDC-developed lab test kit to detect the new coronavirus began shipping to qualified US laboratories and international ones. — However, on Feb 12, the CDC said some of the testing kits have flaws and do not work properly. The CDC finally ended up shipping the working test kits for mass testings on Feb 27. This was three weeks later than originally planned.
On Feb 07, China National Petroleum has recently declared Force Majeure on gas imports. They are trying to create a breathing room for their foreign exchange reserves shortage. China's foreign exchange reserves fell to mere USD $3.1 trillion in Oct. 2019.
On the same day, Bloomberg reported that PetroChina has directed employees in 20 countries to buy N95 face masks and send them home in China. The goal is to get 2 million masks shipped back. You can also find YouTube videos that show Overseas Chinese are scouring the masks at the Home Depot to ship them to China (the video in Korean). Also Chris Smith is pissed.
On Feb 09, Trump renews his national emergency on its southern border, and Elizabeth Goitein from the Brennan Center for Justice, published an opinion article on New York Times titled "Trump Has Abused This Power. And He Will Again if He’s Not Stopped."
On Feb 10, Dr. Tedros said that an advance three-person team of the WHO arrived in Beijing for a joint mission to discuss with Chinese officials the agenda and questions. Then, the joint mission of about 10 international experts will soon follow, he said. — Those WHO experts ended up visiting Chinese epicentre for the first time on Feb 24.
On Feb 12, the US targets Russian oil company for helping Venezuela skirt sanctions. The US admin seemingly tried to secure leverage against Russia after noticing something suspicious was up.
On the same day, Trump told Reuters "I hope this outbreak or this event (for the US) may be over in something like April." — Dr. Zhong Nanshan (钟南山), China's top tier SARS-hero doctor, also said "the peak of the virus (for China) should come in mid to late February, followed by a plateau or decrease," adding that his forecast was based on on mathematical modelling and data from recent events and government action.
On Feb 13, Tom Frieden who is a former US CDC chief and currently the head of public health nonprofit Resolve to Save Lives, said:
As countries are trying to develop their own control strategies, they are looking for evidence of whether the situation in China is getting worse or better. [But] We still don't have very basic information. [since the WHO just entered China] We hope that information will be coming out.
On the same day, the CDC reports that the 15th case in the US was confirmed. The patient was a part of group who were under a federal quarantine order at the JBSA-Lackland base because of a recent trip to Hubei Province, China.
By Feb 13, China hasn't accepted the US CDC's offer to send top experts, and they haven't released the "disaggregated" data (specific figures broken out from the overall numbers) even though repeatedly been asked.
On Feb 14, CCP's United Front posted an article on its official website, saying (Eng. text by Google Translation):
Fast! There is no time difference to raise urgently needed materials! Some Overseas Chinese have used their professions in the field of medicine in order to purchase relevant materials Hubei province in short of supply (to send them to China). .... Some Overseas Chinese took advantage of the connection resources, opened green transportation channels through our embassies and consulates abroad, and their related enterprises, and quickly sent large quantities of medical supplies (to China), making this love relay link and cooperation seamless.
On Feb 18, Reuters reports that 3M is on the list of firms eligible for China loans to ease coronavirus crisis.
There is no indication from the list that loans offered will necessarily be sought, or that such firms are in any financial need. The Bank of Shanghai told Reuters it will lend 5.5 billion yuan ($786 million) to 57 firms on its list.
On Feb 21, Xi Jinping writes a thank-you letter to Bill Gates for his foundation’s support to China regarding COVID-19 outbreak.
On Feb 24, China was rumoured on Twitter to delay the phase one trade deal implementation indefinitely which includes the increase of China's purchasing American products & services by at least $200 billion over the next two years.
Also on Feb 24, S&P 500 Index started to drop. Opened with 3225.9 and closed 3128.2. By the Mar 23, it dropped to 2208.9.
Also on Feb 24, China's National Health Commission says the WHO experts have visited Wuhan city for the first time, the locked-down central Chinese city at the epicentre, inspecting two hospitals and a makeshift one at a sports centre.
On Feb 26, IF the picture that has been circulated on Twitter were real, then chief Chen Wei and her team have developed the first batch of COVID-19 vaccine within time frame of a month.
On the same day, the CDC's latest figures displays 59 people in the US who have tested positive for COVID-19.
Also on Feb 26, the Washington Post published an article that says:
.... the WHO said it has repeatedly asked Chinese officials for "disaggregated" data — meaning specific figures broken out from the overall numbers — that could shed light on hospital transmission and help assess the level of risk front-line workers face. "We received disaggregated information at intervals, though not details about health care workers," said Tarik Jasarevic of the WHO. — The comment, in an email on Feb 22 to the Post, was one of the first instances that the WHO had directly addressed shortcomings in China's reporting or handling of the coronavirus crisis.
On Feb 27, after missteps, the CDC says its test kit is ready and the US started to expand testing.
On Feb 28, China transferred more than 80,000 Uighurs to factories used by global brands such as Apple, Nike, & Volkswagen & among others.
Also on Feb 28, the WHO published the official report of the WHO-China joint mission on coronavirus disease 2019. (PDF)
On Feb 29, quoting Caixin media's investigation published on the same day, Lianhe Zaobao, the largest Singapore-based Chinese-language newspaper, published an article reporting the following:
Dr. Li Wenliang said in the interview with Caixin media; [in Dec 2019] another doctor (later turned out to be Dr. Ai Fen) examined and tried to treat a patient who exhibited SARS-like symptoms which akin to influenza resistant to conventional treatment methods. And "the family members who took care of her (the patient) that night also had a fever, and her other daughter also had a fever. This is obviously from person to person" Dr. Li said in the interview."
------------------------
On Mar 01, China's State Council super tighten up their already draconian internet law.
On the same day, Princelings published an propaganda called "A Battle Against Epidemic: China Combating COVID-19 in 2020" which compiles numerous state media accounts on the heroic leadership of Xi Jinping, the vital role of the Communist Party, and the superiority of the Chinese system in fighting the virus.
Starting on Mar 03, the US Fed has taken two significant measures to provide monetary stimulus. It's going to be no use as if a group of people with serious means are manipulating the markets to make sure MM will have liquidity concerns when they need it most.
On Mar 04, Xinhua News, China's official state-run press agency posted an article "Be bold: the world should thank China" which states that
If China retaliates against the US at this time, it will also announce strategic control over medical products, and ban exports of said products to the US. ... If China declares today that its drugs are for domestic use only, the US will fall into the hell of new coronavirus epidemic.
On Mar 05, Shanghai Index has recovered the coronavirus loss almost completely.
On Mar 07, Saudi's Ahmed bin Abdulaziz and Muhammad bin Nayef were arrested on the claims of plotting to overthrow King Salman. — Ahmed bin Abdulaziz is known to have very tight investment-interest relationship with Bill Gates, Bill Browder, Blackstone, & BlackRock: One common factor that connects these people is China.
On Mar 08, the Russia–Saudi oil price war has begun. The ostensible reason was simple: China, the biggest importer of oil from Saudi and Russia, was turning back tankers while claiming that the outbreak forced its economy to a standstill.
On Mar 10, the Washington Post published the article saying that the trade group for manufacturers of personal protective equipment urged in 2009 "immediate action" to restock the national stockpile including N95 masks, but it hasn't been replenished since.
On Mar 11, the gentleman at the WHO declares the coronavirus outbreak a "Global Pandemic." He called on governments to change the course of the outbreak by taking "urgent and aggressive action." This was a full twelve days after the organization published the official report regarding the situation in China.
On Mar 13, the US admin declared a National Emergency and announced the plan to release $50 billion in federal resources amid COVID-19.
Also on Mar 13, China's Ministry of Commerce states that China is now the best region for global investment hedging.
On Mar 15, Business Insider reports that Trump tried to poach German scientists working on a coronavirus vaccine and offered cash so it would be exclusive to the US. The problem is the official CureVac (the German company) twitter account, on Mar 16, 2020, tweeted the following:
To make it clear again on coronavirus: CureVac has not received from the US government or related entities an offer before, during and since the Task Force meeting in the White House on March 2. CureVac rejects all allegations from press.
On Mar 16, the fan club of European globalists has published a piece titled, "China and Coronavirus: From Home-Made Disaster to Global Mega-Opportunity." The piece says:
The Chinese method is the only method that has proved successful [in fighting the virus], is a message spread online in China by influencers, including many essentially promoting propaganda. ... it is certainly a message that seems to be resonating with opinion leaders around the world.
On the same day, unlike China that had one epicentre, Wuhan city, the US now overtakes China with most cases reporting multiple epicentres simultaneously.
Also on Mar 16, the US stocks ended sharply lower with the Dow posting its worst point drop in history. But some showed a faint hint of uncertain hope.
On Mar 17, according to an article on Chinese version of Quora, Zhihu, chief Chen Wei and her team with CanSino Biologics officially initiated a Phase-1 clinical trial for COVID-19 vaccine at the Wuhan lab, Hubei China, which Bloomberg News confirmed. — Click HERE, then set its time period as 1 year, and see when the graph has started to move up.
Also on Mar 17, China's state media, China Global TV Network (CGTN), has produced YouTube videos for Middle Eastern audiences to spread the opinion that the US has engineered COVID-19 events.
Also on Mar 17, Al Jazeera reported that the US President has been criticized for repeatedly referring to the coronavirus as the "Chinese Virus" as critics saying Trump is "fueling bigotry."
• China's Xinhua News tweeted "Racism is not the right tool to cover your own incompetence."
• Tucker Carlson asked: "Why would America's media take China's side amid coronavirus pandemic?"
• Also, Mr. Bill Gates: "We should not call this the Chinese virus."
On Mar 19, for the first time, China reports zero local infections.
Also on Mar 19, Al Jazeera published an analysis report, titled "Coronavirus erodes Trump's re-election prospects."
On Mar 22, Bloomberg reports that China's mobile carriers lost 21 million users during this pandemic event. It's said to be the first net decline since starting to report monthly data in 2000.
On Mar 26, EURACTV reports that China cashes in off coronavirus, selling Spain $466 million in supplies. However, Spain returns 9,000 "quick result" test kits to China, because they were deemed substandard. — Especially the sensibility of the test was around 30 percent, when it should be higher than 80 percent.
------------------------
On Apr 03, Germany and other governments are bolstering corporate defenses to address worries that coronavirus-weakened companies could be easy prey for bargain hunting by China's state owned businesses.
On Apr 05, New York Times says "Trump Again Promotes Use of Unproven Anti-Malaria Drug (hydroxychloroquine)."
On Apr 06, a Democratic State Rep. Karen Whitsett from Detroit credits hydroxychloroquine and President Trump for "saving her in her battle with the coronavirus."
On Apr 07, the US CDC removed the following part from its website.
Although optimal dosing and duration of hydroxychloroquine for treatment of COVID-19 are unknown, some U.S. clinicians have reported anecdotally different hydroxychloroquine dosing such as: 400mg BID on day one, then daily for 5 days; 400 mg BID on day one, then 200mg BID for 4 days; 600 mg BID on day one, then 400mg daily on days 2-5.
------------------------
☞ If there were ever a time for people not to be partisan and tribal, the time has come: We need to be ever vigilant and attentive to all kinds of disinformation & misinformation to see it better as well as to be sharp in our lives. — We really do need to come together.
☞ At first, I was going to draw up a conspiracy theory-oriented list focused on Team-Z, especially Mr. Gates. However, although it's nothing new tbh, recently many chats and discussions seem overflowing with disinformation & misinformation which is, in my opinion, particularly painful at a time like this. Hence, this post became a vanilla list that's just recorded the notable events. — We all are subject to misinformation, miscalculation, and misjudgment. But the clearer the picture becomes the better we can identify Funkspiel.
------------------------
Immediate Aftermath pt.2.a
------------------------
Feasible Timeline of the Operation
------------------------
☞ Go Back to the Short Story.
----
submitted by vanillabluesea to conspiracy [link] [comments]

Alphabet earnings DD (long $GOOG)

The sales consensus Google's own properties (believed to be dominated by search and YouTube ads) is expected to be up 20% in Q4 to $26.75 billion. Fellow online ad giant Facebook's solid Q4 numbers could be a positive sign for Google's report.
A strong dollar has recently been a headwind for many U.S. multinationals. Facebook, for its part, reported its Q4 revenue growth was 33% in constant currency but only 30% in dollars. Google, which got 54% of its revenue from international markets in Q3, undoubtedly felt the effects of a strong dollar as well in Q4. However, the company has had success over the years at using currency hedging programs to limit the damage done by forex swings. Google will likely surprise for the better on this issue.
Also, the fact that the Pixel 3 and 3 XL (launched in October) was available in more markets than the Pixel 2 and 2 XL were a year earlier will likely give a boost to revenue. The pixel 3 got great reviews and I know a lot of people who received them for Christmas or bought them themselves.
Tl;dr: Other companies did well with ad revenue this quarter, google is good at limiting damage done by forex swings, and the Google pixel probably sold better than expected.
Edit: Welp, beat earnings and revenue, and had alright guidance, but still dropped a bit.
Edit2: nah they’re up 10% now, just low vol. after hours trading.
submitted by BearStearnsToTheMoon to stocks [link] [comments]

who trades retail?

From what I understand there are two different forex markets. The interbank one where banks, hedge funds, big money trade. And then you have the retail forex market. So is the retail forex market comprised entirely of private individuals? Was watching a youtube video where this guy was claiming that smart money/banks were manipulating the market during certain events... I was thinking to myself I thought banks didn't trade retail. Are there huge players like that on the retail market that can manipulate the market?
submitted by qwertytrewq00 to Forex [link] [comments]

If you hodl or trade, you`re the biggest problem with the world of cryptocurrencies.

There`s 3 components to a market economy: Spending, Savings & Investments. We only have 2 and those are way off balance.
Spending: Payments. Drives Inclusion & Adoption. Represents the primary bridge to real world assets.
Saving: Store of Value, Essential driver for stability. The ideea that your holdings are safe over time and don`t depreciate.
Investments: Trading, drives value of the economy, corrects inflation.
State of the nation:
IF there`s any chance at adoption, don`t just HODL. Don`t just DayTrade. Spend what you have. Money needs to move.
The moment you start spending a portion of cryptocurrencies, that money moves. The entire supply chain benefits. Miners Mine, Exchangers Exchange, Businesses get paid, Taxes get taxed. The underlying value of your holdings grows as you tell more people how you paid your AliBaba supplier in Bitcoin and didn`t have any trouble with your EU based bank making a fuss over "why you`re sending money to Asia".
If the only thing you do with Crypto is to buy it, hold it or trade it, it has no impact on real life. It`s not inviting more people to use it. Demand doesn`t grow. the value chain remains closed and non-inclusive. And it`s against the basic principles of Blockchain. You, the person who only has 10 USD in Dogecoin or the Hodler who has 8 bitcoins since Satoshi was in diapers, you`re responsible for the value of your assets and growth of your community. If you don`t SPEND it, people around you have NO reason to adopt. And if they do adopt, they do it for the wrong reasons and simply add to the volatility.
Introduction:
I`ve been in this space since 2009, reading all I could get my hands on. Coming from a poorly banked background and still having frustrations due to the inability of making online purchases at the time, just coming out of a recession, Bitcoin`s vision struck a nerve with me. I`ve been an avid believer in blockchain ever since and at no point did I buy crypto to store value, hedge my bets, invest, digital gold or any of this. I went in because it was, and still is: the easiest way to send money across the world. Ethereum`s smart contracts bring this simple function to a new level, introducing conditions to be met for the transfer itself. Simple, open, transparent, inclusive. Period.
What we`ve become, as a community:
As a whole, this community went from a group of passionate people who wanted an alternative to banks, government and politics, people who wanted to deal directly with other people, to something weird I can`t describe as a whole, but more as personas. Here`s what I`m seeing:
  1. The "I wanna buy Pizza with Bitcoin" crowd. I`m one of them. We just wanted a simple alternative, we were okay with volatility because we always knew the more people use it, more stable it gets as an alternative currency. Conspiracy theorists, tech geeks, scientists, curious people fascinated by the endless possibilities of a global, open banking system, built by the people, for the people. Joined from the first 3-4 years of Bitcoin, many still join it.
  2. The Hodlers: Also coined as the true "Believers". They`re responsible for the initial traction, and would rather liquidate their house than to "sell off" their Bitcoins. They see Bitcoin and other currencies as a "store of value" and see not much difference between buying/storing Gold and Crypto. Joined after the first group and peacefully co-existed with everybody so far. Most dedicated miners came from this group/generation of adopters.
  3. The Traders: People coming from the finance world. They either did Hedgefunds, Forex, VC. Smart opportunists that saw the first 2 groups, saw the potential value of the system as something to be gained from (nothing wrong with this) and heavily capitalize on it. These were the first guys to look at crypto as financial instruments and started fighting the compliance game. This is also where market manipulation started.
  4. The "Tokenize the world" generation. Driven by technology on one side, by the ICO madness on the other side, this opportunistic group wanted to create a token (and respective ICOs) for everything they could think of. Huge similarities between how everything needed a website in the 2000`s, everything needed an app in 2010, everything needed a coin/token started around 2016. Dogecoin is the perfect example of a joke that got way out of proportion, while the original ideea was to make fun of this particular group. Oh well, this group still garners a lot of traction/interest. This group is why we have 3000 shitcoins and who knows how many that never saw the light of day.
  5. The Consultants, Gurus, Ninjas. The "know it all`s". They`re all about the TREND, not about the substance. In the 90`s we had the "internet consultants" who were selling strategies for people to get online. Later the same people were selling strategies to get website traffic. Later, it was about the apps or about the cloud. Right now, it`s about blockchain, token economics, go to market, liquidity, or investing. Some are super smart, most are useless. The only thing that really bothers me is that consultants take no ownership in the success or failure of what they`re selling. As long as you cover their fees, they don`t care if their advice works or not and usually blame you for failing. These are the "market makers" of today, the youtube/facebook/twitteinstagram investment gurus who look at charts for 4 hours and make predictions without really having any skin in the game. Here`s what I never got my head around, if you know how to make a market for a coin, or really know how to invest in crypto.... WHY would you charge me 20k when you can make millions for yourself in less time than that? I guess it holds true: those that can, DO, those that can`t, Teach.
This brings us to the state of the market today.
Proposed solution:
Don`t wait for your government to regulate, don`t wait for banks or institutional investors to kick in, don`t wait for the media frenzy. Just do your part: spend, save and invest your crypto just as you would your USD/Euro/Yen/etc. If you`re a freelancer, accept crypto payments. if you run a business, accept crypto payments. If you have crypto, make crypto payments. This is the main reason we have crypto today and it`s exactly what we don`t use it for. Go back to basics and let`s see how influenced by "market volatility" or "market manipulation" or "media bias" the price will get.
Disclosure: Yes, trying to solve the adoption issue has led me to build a platform for e-commerce that also solves crypto-to-fiat payments for more than 2000 tokens. We walk the walk, not talk the talk.
I`d love to hear if you guys agree or disagree, and most importantly, Why?
C:\>
P.S. I love you
submitted by chrisorasanusdk to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

If you just hodl or trade, you`re the biggest problem with the world of cryptocurrencies.

TL;DR: There`s 3 components to a market economy: Spending, Savings & Investments. We only have 2 and those are way off balance.
Spending: Payments. Drives Inclusion & Adoption. Represents the primary bridge to real world assets.
Saving: Store of Value, Essential driver for stability. The ideea that your holdings are safe over time and don`t depreciate.
Investments: Trading, drives value of the economy, corrects inflation.
State of the nation:
IF there`s any chance at adoption, don`t just HODL. Don`t just DayTrade. Spend what you have. Money needs to move.
The moment you start spending a portion of cryptocurrencies, that money moves. The entire supply chain benefits. Miners Mine, Exchangers Exchange, Businesses get paid, Taxes get taxed. The underlying value of your holdings grows as you tell more people how you paid your AliBaba supplier in Bitcoin and didn`t have any trouble with your EU based bank making a fuss over "why you`re sending money to Asia".
If the only thing you do with Crypto is to buy it, hold it or trade it, it has no impact on real life. It`s not inviting more people to use it. Demand doesn`t grow. the value chain remains closed and non-inclusive. And it`s against the basic principles of Blockchain. You, the person who only has 10 USD in Dogecoin or the Hodler who has 8 bitcoins since Satoshi was in diapers, you`re responsible for the value of your assets and growth of your community. If you don`t SPEND it, people around you have NO reason to adopt. And if they do adopt, they do it for the wrong reasons and simply add to the volatility.
Introduction:
I`ve been in this space since 2009, reading all I could get my hands on. Coming from a poorly banked background and still having frustrations due to the inability of making online purchases at the time, just coming out of a recession, Bitcoin`s vision struck a nerve with me. I`ve been an avid believer in blockchain ever since and at no point did I buy crypto to store value, hedge my bets, invest, digital gold or any of this. I went in because it was, and still is: the easiest way to send money across the world. Ethereum`s smart contracts bring this simple function to a new level, introducing conditions to be met for the transfer itself. Simple, open, transparent, inclusive. Period.
What we`ve become, as a community:
As a whole, this community went from a group of passionate people who wanted an alternative to banks, government and politics, people who wanted to deal directly with other people, to something weird I can`t describe as a whole, but more as personas. Here`s what I`m seeing:
  1. The "I wanna buy Pizza with Bitcoin" crowd. I`m one of them. We just wanted a simple alternative, we were okay with volatility because we always knew the more people use it, more stable it gets as an alternative currency. Conspiracy theorists, tech geeks, scientists, curious people fascinated by the endless possibilities of a global, open banking system, built by the people, for the people. Joined from the first 3-4 years of Bitcoin, many still join it.
  2. The Hodlers: Also coined as the true "Believers". They`re responsible for the initial traction, and would rather liquidate their house than to "sell off" their Bitcoins. They see Bitcoin and other currencies as a "store of value" and see not much difference between buying/storing Gold and Crypto. Joined after the first group and peacefully co-existed with everybody so far. Most dedicated miners came from this group/generation of adopters.
  3. The Traders: People coming from the finance world. They either did Hedgefunds, Forex, VC. Smart opportunists that saw the first 2 groups, saw the potential value of the system as something to be gained from (nothing wrong with this) and heavily capitalize on it. These were the first guys to look at crypto as financial instruments and started fighting the compliance game. This is also where market manipulation started.
  4. The "Tokenize the world" generation. Driven by technology on one side, by the ICO madness on the other side, this opportunistic group wanted to create a token (and respective ICOs) for everything they could think of. Huge similarities between how everything needed a website in the 2000`s, everything needed an app in 2010, everything needed a coin/token started around 2016. Dogecoin is the perfect example of a joke that got way out of proportion, while the original ideea was to make fun of this particular group. Oh well, this group still garners a lot of traction/interest. This group is why we have 3000 secondary coins and who knows how many that never saw the light of day.
  5. The Consultants, Gurus, Ninjas. The "know it all`s". They`re all about the TREND, not about the substance. In the 90`s we had the "internet consultants" who were selling strategies for people to get online. Later the same people were selling strategies to get website traffic. Later, it was about the apps or about the cloud. Right now, it`s about blockchain, token economics, go to market, liquidity, or investing. Some are super smart, most are useless. The only thing that really bothers me is that consultants take no ownership in the success or failure of what they`re selling. As long as you cover their fees, they don`t care if their advice works or not and usually blame you for failing. These are the "market makers" of today, the youtube/facebook/twitteinstagram investment gurus who look at charts for 4 hours and make predictions without really having any skin in the game. Here`s what I never got my head around, if you know how to make a market for a coin, or really know how to invest in crypto.... WHY would you charge me 20k when you can make millions for yourself in less time than that? I guess it holds true: those that can, DO, those that can`t, Teach.
This brings us to the state of the market today.
Proposed solution:
Don`t wait for your government to regulate, don`t wait for banks or institutional investors to kick in, don`t wait for the media frenzy. Just do your part: spend, save and invest your crypto just as you would your USD/Euro/Yen/etc. If you`re a freelancer, accept crypto payments. if you run a business, accept crypto payments. If you have crypto, make crypto payments. This is the main reason we have crypto today and it`s exactly what we don`t use it for. Go back to basics and let`s see how influenced by "market volatility" or "market manipulation" or "media bias" the price will get.
Disclosure: Yes, trying to solve the adoption issue has led me to build a platform for e-commerce that also solves crypto-to-fiat payments for more than 2000 tokens. We walk the walk, not talk the talk.
I`d love to hear if you guys agree or disagree, and most importantly, Why?
C:\>
P.S. I love you
submitted by chrisorasanusdk to ethtrader [link] [comments]

Indonesian Review of InziderX Exchange

Indonesian Review of InziderX Exchange
Indonesian Review of InziderX Exchange - from one of our Bounty members - thanks to indocafe!!
https://preview.redd.it/3ws4hnaf5mr11.png?width=960&format=png&auto=webp&s=158ae4627e1a050475467ac24b5e30f02eb24344

Pasar OTC Tempat Leverage Terdesentralisasi
Foto InziderX.

VISI KAMI
InziderX adalah pasar OTC tempat leverage terdesentralisasi di mana Anda dapat menukar 20 aset digital teratas secara pribadi dan tanpa verifikasi. Transaksi dilakukan di antara orang dalam anonim, dompet ke dompet menggunakan Atom Swap. Likuiditas disediakan oleh sistem relay berdasarkan teknologi Lightning Network.
User friendly, terminal InziderX dikhususkan untuk para pedagang aktif dan algoritma mencari pengejaran dan eksekusi kualitas. Platform kami akan menyediakan alat untuk membantu mereka menerapkan strategi mereka dengan jenis pesanan yang kompleks, paket grafik Pro-trading dan memajukan perintah API.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wZYPIYic8Uo
https://preview.redd.it/cg4iu5lh5mr11.png?width=640&format=png&auto=webp&s=2a27ea5e101be5ab9c1b858f40a7b5d678677a37

KARAKTERISTIK
DESENTRALISASI EXCHANGE
Teknologi pertukaran kami berbasis dompet - Dapp. Ini aman dengan desain.
Karena Anda memiliki benih dompet Anda dan tidak ada honeypot untuk diretas, Anda dapat yakin dana Anda aman.
Yang Anda perlukan untuk memulai perdagangan adalah dengan menahan aset Anda ke dalam dompet multi-aset.
Tidak ada prasasti, verifikasi atau pembatasan.


https://i.redd.it/xupli06l5mr11.gif


JARINGAN LIGHTNING
Dengan memasukkan likuiditas dari sentralisasi bursa yang lebih besar dan pemain besar lainnya melalui Lightning Network, kami mendapatkan yang terbaik dari kedua dunia.
Keamanan desentralisasi dan likuiditas sentralisasi.
Jadi menciptakan jendela tentang apa yang akan menjadi masa depan besok:
Dunia jaringan - pasar pasar.

https://i.redd.it/fcoe4kim5mr11.gif


ADVANCE TRADING TOOLS
Fokus platform kami adalah pada perdagangan aktif dan algoritma.
Dengan memberikan jenis perintah kompleks akses, paket grafik Pro-trading dan perintah API lanjutan.
Kami akan menyediakan alat yang hilang yang digunakan pedagang di terminal Forex terbaru:
Margin, pendanaan perdagangan, short selling, jenis posisi FX, hedging.

https://preview.redd.it/oanp1yao5mr11.png?width=200&format=png&auto=webp&s=00b3ab8a3be6ed97424c9a468426bcc5792575da


PERDAGANGAN KOMUNITAS
Komunitas adalah kuncinya dan itulah mengapa InziderX akan memberi imbalan kepada para pedagang dengan banyak program.
Di forum di blockchain kedua untuk tips trader dan analisis pribadi, komunitas akan dapat belajar sendiri cara paling maju dalam trading.
Kontes untuk trader terbaik, program layanan sinyal, dan perubahan voting untuk pengembangan platform.
Menjadi seorang inzider, bergabunglah dengan komunitas!

https://preview.redd.it/y18zal8q5mr11.png?width=198&format=png&auto=webp&s=8a97bfae15f3a221168716582627824d44520df7


PERTUKARAN
Alat terminal perdagangan paling maju digabungkan dengan teknologi terbaruInziderX adalah jendela pedagang di pasar besok

https://preview.redd.it/dx96d8zr5mr11.png?width=640&format=png&auto=webp&s=7edcee25fddee75bc9c458f17a02bee2d2e130c4


MARGIN & PENDANAAN PERDAGANGANPengguna dapat meminjam jumlah dana yang diinginkan untuk memasuki posisi margin. Pendanaan pesanan pengguna lain menyediakan cara untuk mendapatkan laba.
JENIS PESANAN KOMPLEKSMemiliki stop loss dan order take profit menempel pada entri memungkinkan Anda menetapkan tingkat pengambilan profit dan membatasi risiko terlebih dahulu. Anda sekarang dapat duduk, menonton, dan bersantai.
PAKET GRAFIK PRO TRADINGMengintegrasikan paket grafik Tradingview terbaru dengan lebih dari 50 alat gambar, 100 indikator dan osilator. Hapus dan tunjukan grafik untuk analisis terbaik.
ALGORITME MEMUNGKINKAN APICara mudah dan efisien untuk membangun strategi perdagangan otomatis dengan semua perintah untuk mengontrol dompet Anda dan banyak lagi. Kemungkinannya tidak terbatas.
INTEGRASI DOMPET HDJangan pernah mengekspos kunci pribadi Anda dengan menjaganya agar tetap aman di bawah cold storage dengan integrasi dompet HD seperti Ledger Nano S atau MetaMask.
PROGRAM PEMBUAT PASARBiaya perdagangan dan program hadiah yang lebih rendah untuk pedagang bervolume besar akan mendukung likuiditas, spread yang ketat dan selip yang rendah.
KOMUNITAS PEMBELAJARAN AKTIFPedagang mengajar pedagang lain, bertukar ide, strategi, algoritma. Dapatkan imbalan atas kontribusi Anda. Komunitas adalah kuncinya.
KONTES TRADERTunjukkan kami strategi dan algoritme terbaik Anda, tulis dompet Anda untuk perekaman sinyal masuk. Dapatkan imbalan dari komunitas untuk kontribusi Anda.
PERDAGANGAN SINYALPedagang terbaik dari Kontes Trader memberikan sinyal kepada pengguna lain dan mendapatkan imbalan untuk itu. Pilih penyedia sinyal Anda dengan profil risiko dan waktu memegangnya.
PROGRAM HADIAHBerikan imbalan kepada Market Maker, kepada para pemenang Kontes Pedagang, penyedia sinyal dan orang-orang yang berkontribusi paling banyak kepada masyarakat.
SUARA KOMUNITASApa modifikasi selanjutnya yang harus kita lihat di bursa kami, beri tahu kami melalui program voting. Pengembang kami mendengarkan.
PESAN TERENKRIPSI DAN TIDAK BISA DILACAKDompet ini mencakup sistem pesan terenkripsi dan tidak dapat dilacak yang didasarkan pada blockchain. Grup dapat berbagi wawasan real-time.
MASA DEPAN
InziderX adalah awal dari visi baru - Desentralisasi Sejati.
Transaksi dilakukan P2P, dompet ke dompet, tanpa kontrol atau pengaruh pihak ketiga. Swap atom memberikan keamanan dan likuiditas Jaringan Petir.
Tidak mungkin untuk menurunkan nilai tukar, karena tidak ada server. Data benar-benar terdesentralisasi di seluruh buku besar blockchain terdistribusi sehingga tidak dapat dicuri atau rusak.
Tidak ada prasasti, verifikasi atau pembatasan. Unduh dompet kami dan mulailah berdagang. Sesederhana itu.
Dompetnya adalah pertukaran!
KERTAS PUTIH
The Whitepaper InziderX menjelaskan secara rinci karakteristik baik dari pertukaran kamiBerkontribusi untuk ICO kami dan mengambil bagian dalam masa depan pertukaran perdagangan aset digital - Desentralisasi yang benar
KERTAS PUTIH
The Whitepaper InziderX menjelaskan secara rinci karakteristik baik dari pertukaran desentralisasi kami
EKONOMI
Ekonomi - penawaran, softcap, hardcap, opsi pra-penjualan, bonus dan alokasi dana
SATU PAGER
Dapatkan gambaran singkat tentang proyek-proyek InziderX dalam mode power point
PROGRAM BOUNTY
Jadilah bagian dari promosi ICO InziderX dan dapatkan imbalan di INX. Beberapa program hadiah terbuka!

TERJEMAHAN & DOKUMEN LAIN
PETA JALAN
November 2017STUDI TEKNOLOGI - SEDANG BERLANGSUNGBeberapa tes dan studi dilakukan pada teknologi terbaru
Maret 2018TULISAN PUTIH - DILENGKAPIMenetapkan visi Pertukaran InziderX
Juli hingga Desember 2018INX SALE - ICOKemitraan untuk EcoSystem masa depan
Desember 2018FORUM KOMUNITAS INZIDERXAktivasi forum & distribusi INC
Febuary 2019DISTRIBUSI INXRilis dompet dan distribusi INX
Juli 2019RILIS INZIDERX EXCHANGE PERTAMAKarakteristik dasar
Januari 2020PENGEMBANGAN KOMUNITASReward, kontes & program sinyal
Febuary 2020IMPLEMENTASI SISTEM VOTINGKomunitas mengambil kendali
Mars 2020SARAN KOMUNITASPelaksanaan
Juni 2020PERTUKARAN INZIDERXSemua karakteristik sepenuhnya diaktifkan
Juli 2020KOMUNITAS INZIDERXSemua karakteristik sepenuhnya diaktifkan
Agustus 2020MENDENGARKAN KOMUNITASSedang berlangsung
TEMUI TIMGagasan itu tak terkalahkan tetapi membutuhkan tim yang hebat untuk dicapai.

MITRA
Untuk Informasi lebih luas bisa Klik di bawah ini :
WEBSITE - ANN - WHITEPAPER - TWITTER - FACEBOOK - STEEMIT - TELEGRAM
USERNAME PROFIL BTT : INDOCAFE
submitted by InziderX to u/InziderX [link] [comments]

The XTRD Megathread

What is XTRD?

XTRD is a technology company that are introducing a new infrastructure that would allow banks, hedge funds, and large institutional traders to easily access cryptocurrency markets.
XTRD is launching three separate products in sequential stages to solve the ongoing problems caused by having so many disparate markets. Firstly a unified FIX API followed by XTRD Dark Pools and finally the XTRD Single Point of Access or SPA.
Our goal is to build trading infrastructure in the cyptospace and become one of the first full service shops in the cryptocurrency markets for large traders and funds.

What are the industry issues?

COMPLEX WEB OF EXCHANGES. A combination of differing KYC policies, means of funding, interfaces and APIs results in a fragmented patchwork of liquidity for cryptocurrencies. Trading in an automated fashion with full awareness of best pricing and current liquidity necessitates the opening and use of accounts on multiple exchanges, coding to multiple API’s, following varying funding and withdrawal procedures. Once those hurdles are cleared, market participants must convert fiat currency to BTC or ETH and then forward the ETH on to an exchange that may not accept fiat, necessitating yet another transaction to convert back to fiat. Major concerns for market participants range from unmitigated slippage and counterparty risk to hacking prevention and liquidity.
HIGH FEES. Execution costs are even more of a factor. Typical exchange commissions are in the 0.1% – 0.25% range per transaction (10 to 25 basis points), but the effective fees are much higher when taking into bid and ask spreads maintained by the exchanges. As most exchanges are unregulated, there is generally no central authority or regulator to examine internal exchange orders that separate proprietary activity from customer activity and ensure fair pricing.
THIN LIQUIDITY. A large institutional order, representing a sizable percentage of daily volume can move the market for a product, and related products in an exchange by a factor of 5-10%. That means a single order to buy $1,000,000 worth of bitcoin can cost an extra $50,000-$100,000 per transaction given a lack of liquidity if not managed correctly and executed on only one exchange. By way of comparison, similar trades on FX exchanges barely move markets a fraction of a percent; those price changes cost traders money, and deter investment.

What are the XTRD solutions?

FIX API
An API is an “Application Programming Interface”, a set of rules that computer programs use to communicate. FIX stands for “Financial Information eXchange”, the API standard used by most financial organizations as the intermediary protocol to communicate amongst disparate systems such as market data, execution, trade reporting, and order entry for the past 25 years.XTRD is fixing the problem of having 100 different APIs for 100 exchanges by creating a single FIX based API for market data and execution – the same FIX API that all current financial institutions utilize.XTRD will leverage our data center presences in DC3 Chicago and NY4 New Jersey to host FIX trading clients and reduce their trading latencies to single milliseconds, a time acceleration of 100x when it comes to execution vs internet. More infrastructure and private worldwide internet lines will be added in 2018 and beyond to enable secure, low latency execution for all XTRD clients, FIX and PRO.
XTRD PRO
XTRD PRO is a professional trading platform that will fix the basic problems with trading across crypto exchanges – the need to open multiple web pages, having to click around multiple windows, only being able to use basic order types, and not seeing all your positions, trades, and market data in one place.XTRD PRO will be standalone, downloadable, robust end-to-end encrypted software that will consolidate all market data from exchanges visually into one order book, provide a consolidated position and order view across all your exchange accounts, and enable client side orders not available on exchanges – keyboard macro shortcuts, VWAP/TWAP, shaving the bid and offer, hit through 1% of the inside, reserve orders that bid 100 but show 1, SMART order routing to best exchange and intelligent order splicing across exchanges based on execution costs net of fees, OCO and OTO, many others.
XTRD SPA
XTRD SPA is the solution to bridge cross-exchange liquidity issues. XTRD is creating Joint Venture partnerships with trusted cryptocurrency exchanges to provide clients on those exchanges execution across other exchanges where they do not have accounts by leveraging XTRD’s liquidity pools.An order placed by a client at CEX.IO, XTRD’s first JV partner, can be executed by XTRD at a different exchange where there may be a better price or higher liquidity for a digital asset. Subsequently, XTRD will deliver the position to CEX.IO and then CEX.IO will deliver the execution to the client, with XTRD acting as just another market participant at the CEX.IO exchange.XTRD does not take custody of funds, we are a technology partner with exchanges. All local exchange rules, procedures, and AML/KYC policies apply.
XTRD DARK
Institutions and large market participants who have large orders of 100 BTC or more generally must execute across multiple markets, increasing their counterparty risk, paying enormous commissions and spreads, and generally having to deal with the vagaries of the crypto space. Alternatives are OTC brokers that charge multiple percents or private peer-to-peer swaps which are difficult to effectuate unless one is deeply in the space.XTRD is launching XTRD DARK – a dark liquidity pool to trade crypto vs fiat that matches buyers and sellers of large orders, discreetly and anonymously, at a much lower cost. Liquidity is not displayed so large orders do not move thin markets as they would publicly. The liquidity will come from direct XTRD DARK participants as well as aggregation of retail order flow into block orders, XTRD’s own liquidity pools, connections with decentralized exchanges to effectuate liquidity swaps, and OTC broker order flow.XTRD is partnering with a fiat banking providebroker dealer to onboard all XTRD DARK participants for the fiat currency custody side with full KYC/AML procedures.

XTRD Tokenomics

Who is XTRD intended for?

XTRD is mainly aimed at major institutions, hedge funds, algorithmic traders who are currently unable to enter the crypto markets.
These firms include companies such as Divisa Capital run by XTRD Advisor Mushegh Tovmasyan.

XTRD Weekly Updates

Upcoming Events

AMA's

Further AMA's will be coming soon!

XTRD In The Media

Resources

More information will be added to this thread as the project develops.
We are currently looking for key community members to assist in building out this thread.
If you are interested please email [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
submitted by tylerbro77 to XtradeIO [link] [comments]

The XTRD Megathread

What is XTRD?

XTRD is a technology company that are introducing a new infrastructure that would allow banks, hedge funds, and large institutional traders to easily access cryptocurrency markets.
XTRD is launching three separate products in sequential stages to solve the ongoing problems caused by having so many disparate markets. Firstly a unified FIX API followed by XTRD Dark Pools and finally the XTRD Single Point of Access or SPA.
Our goal is to build trading infrastructure in the cyptospace and become one of the first full service shops in the cryptocurrency markets for large traders and funds.

How does XTRD work?

Step 1 - XTRD's universal low latency FIX based API connecting to all crypto exchanges to make it easy for major institutions, hedge funds, and algorithmic traders to access all cryptocurrency markets by coding to just one FIX application - in one format - with which they are already intimately familiar.
This communications bridge will allow large market participants to easily add multi exchange crypto execution to their existing transaction systems, jumpstarting universal crypto trading adoption among the institutional sector.
Step 2 - XTRD will launch XTRD Pro in 2018 - a highly robust, multi-exchange standalone trading platform for active traders. The platform will include, among other features, advanced consolidated order books, hotkey order entry, and custom order types, with 24x7 uptime.
Step 3 - XTRD creates a single unified point of access to aggregate liquidity across exchanges for traders. This aggregation allows traders to clear at the best possible prices while delivering the lowest possible transaction costs as well as atomic swap capability all with just one client-side account.

XTRD - Token Model

Who is XTRD intended for?

XTRD is mainly aimed at major institutions, hedge funds, algorithmic traders who are currently unable to enter the crypto markets.
These firms include companies such as Divisa Capital run by XTRD Advisor Mushegh Tovmasyan.

XTRD Weekly Updates

Upcoming Events

AMA's

Further AMA's will be coming soon!

XTRD In The Media

Resources

More information will be added to this thread as the project develops.
We are currently looking for key community members to assist in building out this thread.
If you are interested please email [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
submitted by I3erzurker to XtradeIO [link] [comments]

Rate My Lazy European Portfolio Don't Hold Back!

Okay so for the past month I've been interested in investing. Been watching a lot of youtube videos, learning how shit in investing works and reading a lot of this sub which lots of you helped me understand. I think I'm ready to make my first investment strategy and start placing money this week (Obviously I'm still a noob but ya gotta start somewhere right)
I'm 25 years old living in europe (malta) still living with my parents planning on staying living in malta(Can save most of my money). With the aim of placing the money long term (30-40 years) Ratio 80% etf stocks - 20% etf bonds. I will be placing money either monthly or every 3 months I am no certain. And at the end of the year rebalance everything. The reason why I might place money every 3 months instead of every month is due to my broker charging a flat fee of 9 euro's if you don't invest 10,000 at one go(10,000 euros would be a whole years of work in my country) Anyways here are the etfs Il be buying.
40% - iShares Core MSCI World UCITS ETF https://www.ishares.com/uk/individual/en/products/251882/ishares-msci-world-ucits-etf-acc-fund
40% - ISHARES MSCI WORLD EUR HEDGED ETF (IBCH) https://www.ishares.com/uk/individual/en/products/251891/ishares-msci-world-eur-hedged-ucits-etf
20% - ISHARES JP MORGAN USD EM BOND EUR HEGD UCITS ETF (EMBE) https://www.ishares.com/uk/individual/en/products/254531/ishares-j-p-morgan-em-bond-eur-hedged-ucits-etf
The reason why I decided to hedge half and expose half to forex risk of the MSCI World UCITS ETF is to
-Diversify.
-Take advantage of buying cheaper since if the dollar where to lower I'd be buying more shares for the unhedged fund and vice versa.
The reason why I decided to put 20% in an international etf bond is to.
-Diversify
-In case of a stock crash I could sell of some of the bonds to rebalance my stock percentages basically giving me a 'discount price' on those etfs
-The reason I decided to hedge the currency of the etf bond in euro is due to bonds being primarily 'stable' while currency tends to be a bit volatile it didn't make much sense to me to have a bond in USD when I use euro. As currency would play a higher role in determining the price than the actual bond.
I tried to be as diverse as possible with minimal etfs, to reduce the difficulty of maintaining those percentages while reducing fees due to buying different etfs will give me that 9 euro fee every time.
So what do you guys think? Don't feel bad at dissing my strategy as I said I have 0 financial education and only been interested this past month. + I haven't invested yet so any eye opener would be perfect before going in.
So am I diverse enough? Should I add another etf or am I good like this?
Is there a better etf that could replace one I chose maybe?
Thanks for all that reply.
submitted by Dragonlordsk8er to eupersonalfinance [link] [comments]

How difficult is it to switch over to FX, stocks, futures, etc.. from crypto. New firm of traders who are very lost.

Hello everyone! I've been trading crypto for 2 years now with the past 6 months solely relying on day trading as my main source of income. I trade using TA and extremely simple strategies based off oscillators and trend based indicators. I learned TA from youtube and reading pirated ebooks and now after trading crypto for so long it's become kinda of a nuisance to trade. The high fees make automation of scalping strategies extremely difficult.
I started own my own trading firm (of just 4 traders) who also trade crypto with me full time. We all want to switch over to the big boy markets where there is more liquidity so we don't keep running into problems when filling orders like you do in crypto markets.
How hard would you guys say it would be to switch over to Forex/stocks/commodities/etc?
I've downloaded ninjatrader8 and started to play around with it. It's the first time I've come across such a dynamic platform since we all have been using tradingview since we began trading. We call ourselves traders but we have no understanding how fees or brokers work, or getting access to "market data". Can anyone please help a fellow trader out! :D All guide links and responses are highly appreciated!
Lastly, do most people just automate all their trades in those markets? We have already posted on Upwork to hire several programmers to help us create a trading system. Ultimately my goal is to pretty much have a small hedge fund since I have recently got access to many large investors.
Again all replies are appreciated and any information/guide links would be of much great help!
submitted by Mazing7 to Daytrading [link] [comments]

My crypto story

I want to share my story over how I became a Master crypto trader I first heard about Bitcoin a couple years ago from a twitter account called Trutherbot. This twitter account played a big role in waking me to the truths of the federal reserve and the worldwide central banking scam. Nevertheless everytime he would post something about bitcoin I was to lazy to actually watch a 10 minute video on what it was.
Fast forward to summer 2017 Im working and going to school at the same time hating both at the same time. While I learned some valuable lessons and hd great teachers in college I saw Most universities as outdated institutions more focused on making money and having a succesful football team that actually keeping up to date with the age of information where most careers will have to be relearned by the time you get that paper. To top it all off I would have to go into debt to pay a 4 year university tuition. My job on the other hand was HUGE on "SELL THIS SELL THAT SELL EVERYTHING" It always made me feel like a total cuck seeing poor ladies with their fast food uniform on count out cash to try and pay their bills and it be my job to try to sell them on something I knew they couldn't afford. Point being I felt like a total shill working there and I wanted out. By habit I fall sleep watching a documentary about anything I find on youtube. I watched a youtuber who mentioned Bitcoin which was what eventually made me say " What the hell is this bitcoin thing" and decided to do some research. It was love at first sight. I saw Bitcoin as a sword forged from liberty itself to cut off the tentacles of historical bank oppression and create a financial revolution #DecentralizeEverything. I was so ecstatic; I felt like I had discovered a digital California gold rush besides the technological and financial revolution I was witnessing. I became huge on Bitcoin, almost all my twitter and facebook posts were about cryptocurrency and I kept telling everyone how this was the future. In those summer months I would get out what I could of my paycheck and put it into bitcoin. As the boom continued I continued to HODL and make more money. Then it hit me. "people who dedicate their life to trading stocks or forex it isnt luck its a strategy, and any strategy can be learned and applied.
As I hodled I called my family back in Mexico and told them all about it and my mom sent me 1k to invest it for her. The more I grew in knowledge the more comfortable I felt trading. Over time due to my posts on social media more and more people kept messaging me asking me about bitcoin and how they could invest. This made me decide to start a hedge fund and run it month by month. This was it. My exit from being a tax slave to the dollar fictional system. I quit my job, dropped out of school sold my car and moved back to Mexico with my fam so I could focus full time to trading with maximum efficiency. Fast forward to November 2017. I have 12.5 k invested and my sister turns 15, Her Dad sends her 6k as a birthday present and my mom gives me 4k to invest it for her. Total 16.5 k for the month. One night, I see BCH is pumping like hell. Sticking to trader discipline I tell myself theres no way IM buying on such a high, It goes from 300 to 400 to 500 to 600 to 1lk bam bam bam. This at the same time BTC is going down. I scamble to social media and see everyone talking about "The Cashening". I told myself I wouldent switch unless it went over 2.5k. Within 15 minutes I saw my fund drop 50% in price and i dumped. Now sitting with 50% of what I had I knew I had to make a powerplay to end the month positive. I scoured altcoins for that answer and found XLM. I even posted an analyses on my tradingview. telling everyone to buy at 491 and predicted a 57-120% increase . 4 hours before The pump I set a stop loss on XLM and go to sleep just in case. I wake up to find myself stop lossed with no XLM and it being around 1k sats. again , devastation. I wasent about to end the month negative and dissapoint all my Friends and family. I learned how to margin trade. I made an account on Bitmex and transfered my remaining funds in there.
Fast forward to today. I see BTC forming a pennant after breaking resistance and decide to all in 25x leverage. Gone, everything is gone. I apologize for the rushed ending but im still in shock. Im sorry for the clickbait title but I want this story to serve as an example to anyone who wants to become a "trader" in crypto. My advice is never go all in and just hodl; dont trade. or you could end up like me. A fool who let greed blind him. I dont want anyone else to experience the stress and anguish I felt and still feel. This all happened not more than 2 hours ago. Please be careful.
submitted by BlackPuma_ to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

SCAM ALERT: Bitcoin Growth Bot, a brand new lending platform.

I write the review for Bitcoin Growth Bot, a brand new lending platform and here are some things I see about them:
They have registered the domain on Nov 03, 2017, they had only 20 days to build the system. They’re using privacy protection to protect their information so we can’t see their address. The founder is Jordan Lindsey, he is the president of JCL Capital.
They don’t use any DDoS protection services, I see they are using a server at DreamHost and I found out this domain: jcls-forex.com on their server. Then I found this article: https://www.valforex.com/2017/09/aggressive-returns-review-a-scam-by-jordan-lindsey.html if you can’t open that link, visit this link. He seems like a professional scammer.
The homepage, whitepaper and roadmap are fine but I don’t like their design style. A bad thing that I don’t see where is the dashboard. Bitcoin Growth Bot calls their coin is Nucleus (NCL), it’s a WAVES token. What? I will never trust WAVES tokens, many hedge funds created tokens based on WAVES platform to scam.
Total token supply is 24,000,000 NCL, and 9,000,000 NCL will available in the ICO. They will raise $9,000,000 in the ICO. I see they’re paying so much for the referral program, 20 tokens per referral, Youtube scammers are shilling it. Lending plans are pretty good.
I will give Bitcoin Growth Bot 1 star because the founder is a professional scammer and it’s a WAVES token, just stay away from it: http://www.lendingplatformreviews.com/bitcoin-growth-bot-lending-platform-review/
submitted by grovepixels to Bitconnect [link] [comments]

Regulation is Keeping Blockchain in a ‘Straitjacket’, Blackmoon CPO Says

Regulation is Keeping Blockchain in a ‘Straitjacket’, Blackmoon CPO Says
https://preview.redd.it/v23ob1zwuz811.jpg?width=880&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=6b65b3d77a6aa92e5664087c4443ee9903d656d9
This is an excerpt. To hear the full interview, click the Soundcloud or YouTube links.
Asset tokenization is becoming an increasingly popular phenomenon in the fintech sphere. The practice is bringing an increasing amount of institutional investors into the blockchain space.
Time to buy the dip?
Finance Magnates spoke to Moshe Joshua, Chief Product Officer at Blackmoon, about his company’s unique philosophy around asset tokenization, creativity in the blockchain space, and whether or not blockchain is the ultimate answer.

’Not Everything Will be Tokenized’

Moshe said that there is “absolutely no doubt” in his mind that the majority of assets will one day run on a tokenized system. “I’m 100 percent committed to not only buying into that prophecy, but also making it happen.”
However, “I don’t want to say that everything will be tokenized,” he added. “There’s a fallacy in the environment that we’re seeing today, which is that people don’t [ask themselves] a very important question–the question is, ‘why blockchain? Companies come out, and they just don’t ask themselves: ‘why are we using blockchain?’”
Moshe explained that this is important to ask because as blockchain technology stands at this present moment, “[blockchain] is harder to work with [than existing systems]. It’s onerous. It’s very hard to find developers who can work in Solidity and actually build complicated systems.”
“There are latency objectives that are not being met,” he said. “There are throughput objectives that are not being met. There are a lot of reasons–there are more reasons not to use blockchain, and just to build your own system…it’ll work better, cheaper, faster that way than to build a blockchain-based system.
“I think people today are not asking themselves enough: ‘what am I doing that actually requires blockchain, that if I don’t use blockchain then I can’t build my business model the way I want to do it? I think that’s really lost on everybody.

Blackmoon is Focused on Tokenization of Assets with ‘Intrinsic Value’

“When we look at what Blackmoon is doing,” Moshe said, “we have to “split up the ‘money-pie’ of the world into two different facets: financial products that expire and those things that don’t. If you look at the things that don’t expire, you’re really only looking at two slices: you’re looking at equities and currency. Everything else has an expiration on it.”
“That differential is really where things get their value from. When you look at equity and currency–I call them inflatable objects, because they get their value through inflation–if the price goes higher, everybody makes money. Whereas those things that expire, they gain their value intrinsically through decay.”
“So, Blackmoon is tokenizing fund investments–those things that have intrinsic value,” he explained. “Now, hedge funds are in this weird gray area in that border between those things that expire and those that don’t. Because ultimately, you’re buying equity in a hedge fund as a fractional owner of that fund. But the truth is that because I can create and redeem my investment, and I can bring money into the fund and out of the fund, grants [the fund] intrinsic value.
“So it’s not only expiration that grants things intrinsic value–it’s also redemption,” he said. “Those are the products that Blackmoon is focused on.
He said that this is what sets Blackmoon apart from other blockchain-based platforms for asset tokenization. “When you think of a lot of the other tokenization platforms that are working in a similar regulatory environment…they are all focused on equity-based issuances, whereas Blackmoon is more focused on intrinsically-valued issuances.”

Asset Tokenization is the ‘Second Wave’ of Blockchain’s Journey to the Mainstream

“When it comes to the tokenization of financial instruments,” he continued, “I just see it as the second wave of blockchain mainstreaming itself. The first wave really comes from idea that the whitepaper of Bitcoin showed the world that you can create a digital object that is not copyable, and by maintaining that standard of non-duplication from a digital object standard–one that’s internet-based–I think that shows everybody that you can create a denominator of value…and that denominator is fixed, or at least, it’s controlled.
“The next wave (that we’re seeing right now) is the idea of tokenization.” However, “there’s something lost on everybody as it relates to blockchain and finance, in that when you think of creativity as a programmer technologist–most companies (like social networks and what not) can be creative as they want. ‘What should we do? What would be a useful experience for our users?’”
“Everybody comes up with all these wacky ideas, and then they roll it back, and they self-regulate about what [they] should not do. A good example would be Facebook not allowing porn–they could do it if they wanted to, but they don’t for self-regulatory purposes because of the brand’s protection or whatnot.
“I think that within the financial arena, it’s the exact opposite,” he said. “You have this toolbox with all this functionality on the technical side, but we’re having to squeeze it into a box–it’s a square peg in a round hole that doesn’t really fit. More importantly, we have more functionality than the box of regulation allows.”
He argued that this is what’s holding the industry back. “So, it’s very limiting, meaning that we’re starting to use blockchain with a straitjacket.
However, “I see that as an opportunity, because I realize that we’ve brought it to the edge of what the financial arena of regulatory compliance allows us to, and then as that box expands–which it will–we’ll just be ready. It’ll be immediately applicable.”
submitted by W12io to u/W12io [link] [comments]

Safe Zone Strategy System Review - Is Safe Zone Strategy System Software App Scam?

Safe Zone Strategy Review By Tony Flanagan Is Safe Zone Strategy Scam or Legit? What is Tony Flanagan's Safe Zone Strategy System Software all about? Does The Safe Zone Strategy Software System Works? This Honest Safe Zone Strategy Review from real user share the Proof, Truth and SECRETS about Safe Zone Strategy App and SafeZoneStrategy.com Trading System Performance. So, check this In Depth Safe Zone Strategy System Review and Unbiased Safe Zone Strategy Software Results until think to Invest on Safe Zone Strategy Download Free Download Bonus Deposit Join in Safe Zone Strategy Binary Trading Software System or Safe Zone Strategy Auto Binary Options Trading App System Software Bot Scam Bonus. Its free download With Free Sign Up...https://redd.it/3rlxrr
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This Safe Zone Strategy System Reviews links trading signals through a communication network which is based on market behavior and conditions. It traces, analyze and foretell lucrative trades, over 120 times regularly. There are reliable brokers that work to increase the chance of gaining and really not disturbing your investment until you are 100% satisfied with Safe Zone Strategy System.
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submitted by concept-71 to binaryoption [link] [comments]

Subreddit Stats: cs7646_fall2017 top posts from 2017-08-23 to 2017-12-10 22:43 PDT

Period: 108.98 days
Submissions Comments
Total 999 10425
Rate (per day) 9.17 95.73
Unique Redditors 361 695
Combined Score 4162 17424

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 296 points, 24 submissions: tuckerbalch
    1. Project 2 Megathread (optimize_something) (33 points, 475 comments)
    2. project 3 megathread (assess_learners) (27 points, 1130 comments)
    3. For online students: Participation check #2 (23 points, 47 comments)
    4. ML / Data Scientist internship and full time job opportunities (20 points, 36 comments)
    5. Advance information on Project 3 (19 points, 22 comments)
    6. participation check #3 (19 points, 29 comments)
    7. manual_strategy project megathread (17 points, 825 comments)
    8. project 4 megathread (defeat_learners) (15 points, 209 comments)
    9. project 5 megathread (marketsim) (15 points, 484 comments)
    10. QLearning Robot project megathread (12 points, 691 comments)
  2. 278 points, 17 submissions: davebyrd
    1. A little more on Pandas indexing/slicing ([] vs ix vs iloc vs loc) and numpy shapes (37 points, 10 comments)
    2. Project 1 Megathread (assess_portfolio) (34 points, 466 comments)
    3. marketsim grades are up (25 points, 28 comments)
    4. Midterm stats (24 points, 32 comments)
    5. Welcome to CS 7646 MLT! (23 points, 132 comments)
    6. How to interact with TAs, discuss grades, performance, request exceptions... (18 points, 31 comments)
    7. assess_portfolio grades have been released (18 points, 34 comments)
    8. Midterm grades posted to T-Square (15 points, 30 comments)
    9. Removed posts (15 points, 2 comments)
    10. assess_portfolio IMPORTANT README: about sample frequency (13 points, 26 comments)
  3. 118 points, 17 submissions: yokh_cs7646
    1. Exam 2 Information (39 points, 40 comments)
    2. Reformat Assignment Pages? (14 points, 2 comments)
    3. What did the real-life Michael Burry have to say? (13 points, 2 comments)
    4. PSA: Read the Rubric carefully and ahead-of-time (8 points, 15 comments)
    5. How do I know that I'm correct and not just lucky? (7 points, 31 comments)
    6. ML Papers and News (7 points, 5 comments)
    7. What are "question pools"? (6 points, 4 comments)
    8. Explanation of "Regression" (5 points, 5 comments)
    9. GT Github taking FOREVER to push to..? (4 points, 14 comments)
    10. Dead links on the course wiki (3 points, 2 comments)
  4. 67 points, 13 submissions: harshsikka123
    1. To all those struggling, some words of courage! (20 points, 18 comments)
    2. Just got locked out of my apartment, am submitting from a stairwell (19 points, 12 comments)
    3. Thoroughly enjoying the lectures, some of the best I've seen! (13 points, 13 comments)
    4. Just for reference, how long did Assignment 1 take you all to implement? (3 points, 31 comments)
    5. Grade_Learners Taking about 7 seconds on Buffet vs 5 on Local, is this acceptable if all tests are passing? (2 points, 2 comments)
    6. Is anyone running into the Runtime Error, Invalid DISPLAY variable when trying to save the figures as pdfs to the Buffet servers? (2 points, 9 comments)
    7. Still not seeing an ML4T onboarding test on ProctorTrack (2 points, 10 comments)
    8. Any news on when Optimize_Something grades will be released? (1 point, 1 comment)
    9. Baglearner RMSE and leaf size? (1 point, 2 comments)
    10. My results are oh so slightly off, any thoughts? (1 point, 11 comments)
  5. 63 points, 10 submissions: htrajan
    1. Sample test case: missing data (22 points, 36 comments)
    2. Optimize_something test cases (13 points, 22 comments)
    3. Met Burt Malkiel today (6 points, 1 comment)
    4. Heads up: Dataframe.std != np.std (5 points, 5 comments)
    5. optimize_something: graph (5 points, 29 comments)
    6. Schedule still reflecting shortened summer timeframe? (4 points, 3 comments)
    7. Quick clarification about InsaneLearner (3 points, 8 comments)
    8. Test cases using rfr? (3 points, 5 comments)
    9. Input format of rfr (2 points, 1 comment)
    10. [Shameless recruiting post] Wealthfront is hiring! (0 points, 9 comments)
  6. 62 points, 7 submissions: swamijay
    1. defeat_learner test case (34 points, 38 comments)
    2. Project 3 test cases (15 points, 27 comments)
    3. Defeat_Learner - related questions (6 points, 9 comments)
    4. Options risk/reward (2 points, 0 comments)
    5. manual strategy - you must remain in the position for 21 trading days. (2 points, 9 comments)
    6. standardizing values (2 points, 0 comments)
    7. technical indicators - period for moving averages, or anything that looks past n days (1 point, 3 comments)
  7. 61 points, 9 submissions: gatech-raleighite
    1. Protip: Better reddit search (22 points, 9 comments)
    2. Helpful numpy array cheat sheet (16 points, 10 comments)
    3. In your experience Professor, Mr. Byrd, which strategy is "best" for trading ? (12 points, 10 comments)
    4. Industrial strength or mature versions of the assignments ? (4 points, 2 comments)
    5. What is the correct (faster) way of doing this bit of pandas code (updating multiple slice values) (2 points, 10 comments)
    6. What is the correct (pythonesque?) way to select 60% of rows ? (2 points, 11 comments)
    7. How to get adjusted close price for funds not publicly traded (TSP) ? (1 point, 2 comments)
    8. Is there a way to only test one or 2 of the learners using grade_learners.py ? (1 point, 10 comments)
    9. OMS CS Digital Career Seminar Series - Scott Leitstein recording available online? (1 point, 4 comments)
  8. 60 points, 2 submissions: reyallan
    1. [Project Questions] Unit Tests for assess_portfolio assignment (58 points, 52 comments)
    2. Financial data, technical indicators and live trading (2 points, 8 comments)
  9. 59 points, 12 submissions: dyllll
    1. Please upvote helpful posts and other advice. (26 points, 1 comment)
    2. Books to further study in trading with machine learning? (14 points, 9 comments)
    3. Is Q-Learning the best reinforcement learning method for stock trading? (4 points, 4 comments)
    4. Any way to download the lessons? (3 points, 4 comments)
    5. Can a TA please contact me? (2 points, 7 comments)
    6. Is the vectorization code from the youtube video available to us? (2 points, 2 comments)
    7. Position of webcam (2 points, 15 comments)
    8. Question about assignment one (2 points, 5 comments)
    9. Are udacity quizzes recorded? (1 point, 2 comments)
    10. Does normalization of indicators matter in a Q-Learner? (1 point, 7 comments)
  10. 56 points, 2 submissions: jan-laszlo
    1. Proper git workflow (43 points, 19 comments)
    2. Adding you SSH key for password-less access to remote hosts (13 points, 7 comments)
  11. 53 points, 1 submission: agifft3_omscs
    1. [Project Questions] Unit Tests for optimize_something assignment (53 points, 94 comments)
  12. 50 points, 16 submissions: BNielson
    1. Regression Trees (7 points, 9 comments)
    2. Two Interpretations of RFR are leading to two different possible Sharpe Ratios -- Need Instructor clarification ASAP (5 points, 3 comments)
    3. PYTHONPATH=../:. python grade_analysis.py (4 points, 7 comments)
    4. Running on Windows and PyCharm (4 points, 4 comments)
    5. Studying for the midterm: python questions (4 points, 0 comments)
    6. Assess Learners Grader (3 points, 2 comments)
    7. Manual Strategy Grade (3 points, 2 comments)
    8. Rewards in Q Learning (3 points, 3 comments)
    9. SSH/Putty on Windows (3 points, 4 comments)
    10. Slight contradiction on ProctorTrack Exam (3 points, 4 comments)
  13. 49 points, 7 submissions: j0shj0nes
    1. QLearning Robot - Finalized and Released Soon? (18 points, 4 comments)
    2. Flash Boys, HFT, frontrunning... (10 points, 3 comments)
    3. Deprecations / errata (7 points, 5 comments)
    4. Udacity lectures via GT account, versus personal account (6 points, 2 comments)
    5. Python: console-driven development (5 points, 5 comments)
    6. Buffet pandas / numpy versions (2 points, 2 comments)
    7. Quant research on earnings calls (1 point, 0 comments)
  14. 45 points, 11 submissions: Zapurza
    1. Suggestion for Strategy learner mega thread. (14 points, 1 comment)
    2. Which lectures to watch for upcoming project q learning robot? (7 points, 5 comments)
    3. In schedule file, there is no link against 'voting ensemble strategy'? Scheduled for Nov 13-20 week (6 points, 3 comments)
    4. How to add questions to the question bank? I can see there is 2% credit for that. (4 points, 5 comments)
    5. Scratch paper use (3 points, 6 comments)
    6. The big short movie link on you tube says the video is not available in your country. (3 points, 9 comments)
    7. Distance between training data date and future forecast date (2 points, 2 comments)
    8. News affecting stock market and machine learning algorithms (2 points, 4 comments)
    9. pandas import in pydev (2 points, 0 comments)
    10. Assess learner server error (1 point, 2 comments)
  15. 43 points, 23 submissions: chvbs2000
    1. Is the Strategy Learner finalized? (10 points, 3 comments)
    2. Test extra 15 test cases for marketsim (3 points, 12 comments)
    3. Confusion between the term computing "back-in time" and "going forward" (2 points, 1 comment)
    4. How to define "each transaction"? (2 points, 4 comments)
    5. How to filling the assignment into Jupyter Notebook? (2 points, 4 comments)
    6. IOError: File ../data/SPY.csv does not exist (2 points, 4 comments)
    7. Issue in Access to machines at Georgia Tech via MacOS terminal (2 points, 5 comments)
    8. Reading data from Jupyter Notebook (2 points, 3 comments)
    9. benchmark vs manual strategy vs best possible strategy (2 points, 2 comments)
    10. global name 'pd' is not defined (2 points, 4 comments)
  16. 43 points, 15 submissions: shuang379
    1. How to test my code on buffet machine? (10 points, 15 comments)
    2. Can we get the ppt for "Decision Trees"? (8 points, 2 comments)
    3. python question pool question (5 points, 6 comments)
    4. set up problems (3 points, 4 comments)
    5. Do I need another camera for scanning? (2 points, 9 comments)
    6. Is chapter 9 covered by the midterm? (2 points, 2 comments)
    7. Why grade_analysis.py could run even if I rm analysis.py? (2 points, 5 comments)
    8. python question pool No.48 (2 points, 6 comments)
    9. where could we find old versions of the rest projects? (2 points, 2 comments)
    10. where to put ml4t-libraries to install those libraries? (2 points, 1 comment)
  17. 42 points, 14 submissions: larrva
    1. is there a mistake in How-to-learn-a-decision-tree.pdf (7 points, 7 comments)
    2. maximum recursion depth problem (6 points, 10 comments)
    3. [Urgent]Unable to use proctortrack in China (4 points, 21 comments)
    4. manual_strategynumber of indicators to use (3 points, 10 comments)
    5. Assignment 2: Got 63 points. (3 points, 3 comments)
    6. Software installation workshop (3 points, 7 comments)
    7. question regarding functools32 version (3 points, 3 comments)
    8. workshop on Aug 31 (3 points, 8 comments)
    9. Mount remote server to local machine (2 points, 2 comments)
    10. any suggestion on objective function (2 points, 3 comments)
  18. 41 points, 8 submissions: Ran__Ran
    1. Any resource will be available for final exam? (19 points, 6 comments)
    2. Need clarification on size of X, Y in defeat_learners (7 points, 10 comments)
    3. Get the same date format as in example chart (4 points, 3 comments)
    4. Cannot log in GitHub Desktop using GT account? (3 points, 3 comments)
    5. Do we have notes or ppt for Time Series Data? (3 points, 5 comments)
    6. Can we know the commission & market impact for short example? (2 points, 7 comments)
    7. Course schedule export issue (2 points, 15 comments)
    8. Buying/seeking beta v.s. buying/seeking alpha (1 point, 6 comments)
  19. 38 points, 4 submissions: ProudRamblinWreck
    1. Exam 2 Study topics (21 points, 5 comments)
    2. Reddit participation as part of grade? (13 points, 32 comments)
    3. Will birds chirping in the background flag me on Proctortrack? (3 points, 5 comments)
    4. Midterm Study Guide question pools (1 point, 2 comments)
  20. 37 points, 6 submissions: gatechben
    1. Submission page for strategy learner? (14 points, 10 comments)
    2. PSA: The grading script for strategy_learner changed on the 26th (10 points, 9 comments)
    3. Where is util.py supposed to be located? (8 points, 8 comments)
    4. PSA:. The default dates in the assignment 1 template are not the same as the examples on the assignment page. (2 points, 1 comment)
    5. Schedule: Discussion of upcoming trading projects? (2 points, 3 comments)
    6. [defeat_learners] More than one column for X? (1 point, 1 comment)
  21. 37 points, 3 submissions: jgeiger
    1. Please send/announce when changes are made to the project code (23 points, 7 comments)
    2. The Big Short on Netflix for OMSCS students (week of 10/16) (11 points, 6 comments)
    3. Typo(?) for Assess_portfolio wiki page (3 points, 2 comments)
  22. 35 points, 10 submissions: ltian35
    1. selecting row using .ix (8 points, 9 comments)
    2. Will the following 2 topics be included in the final exam(online student)? (7 points, 4 comments)
    3. udacity quiz (7 points, 4 comments)
    4. pdf of lecture (3 points, 4 comments)
    5. print friendly version of the course schedule (3 points, 9 comments)
    6. about learner regression vs classificaiton (2 points, 2 comments)
    7. is there a simple way to verify the correctness of our decision tree (2 points, 4 comments)
    8. about Building an ML-based forex strategy (1 point, 2 comments)
    9. about technical analysis (1 point, 6 comments)
    10. final exam online time period (1 point, 2 comments)
  23. 33 points, 2 submissions: bhrolenok
    1. Assess learners template and grading script is now available in the public repository (24 points, 0 comments)
    2. Tutorial for software setup on Windows (9 points, 35 comments)
  24. 31 points, 4 submissions: johannes_92
    1. Deadline extension? (26 points, 40 comments)
    2. Pandas date indexing issues (2 points, 5 comments)
    3. Why do we subtract 1 from SMA calculation? (2 points, 3 comments)
    4. Unexpected number of calls to query, sum=20 (should be 20), max=20 (should be 1), min=20 (should be 1) -bash: syntax error near unexpected token `(' (1 point, 3 comments)
  25. 30 points, 5 submissions: log_base_pi
    1. The Massive Hedge Fund Betting on AI [Article] (9 points, 1 comment)
    2. Useful Python tips and tricks (8 points, 10 comments)
    3. Video of overview of remaining projects with Tucker Balch (7 points, 1 comment)
    4. Will any material from the lecture by Goldman Sachs be covered on the exam? (5 points, 1 comment)
    5. What will the 2nd half of the course be like? (1 point, 8 comments)
  26. 30 points, 4 submissions: acschwabe
    1. Assignment and Exam Calendar (ICS File) (17 points, 6 comments)
    2. Please OMG give us any options for extra credit (8 points, 12 comments)
    3. Strategy learner question (3 points, 1 comment)
    4. Proctortrack: Do we need to schedule our test time? (2 points, 10 comments)
  27. 29 points, 9 submissions: _ant0n_
    1. Next assignment? (9 points, 6 comments)
    2. Proctortrack Onboarding test? (6 points, 11 comments)
    3. Manual strategy: Allowable positions (3 points, 7 comments)
    4. Anyone watched Black Scholes documentary? (2 points, 16 comments)
    5. Buffet machines hardware (2 points, 6 comments)
    6. Defeat learners: clarification (2 points, 4 comments)
    7. Is 'optimize_something' on the way to class GitHub repo? (2 points, 6 comments)
    8. assess_portfolio(... gen_plot=True) (2 points, 8 comments)
    9. remote job != remote + international? (1 point, 15 comments)
  28. 26 points, 10 submissions: umersaalis
    1. comments.txt (7 points, 6 comments)
    2. Assignment 2: report.pdf (6 points, 30 comments)
    3. Assignment 2: report.pdf sharing & plagiarism (3 points, 12 comments)
    4. Max Recursion Limit (3 points, 10 comments)
    5. Parametric vs Non-Parametric Model (3 points, 13 comments)
    6. Bag Learner Training (1 point, 2 comments)
    7. Decision Tree Issue: (1 point, 2 comments)
    8. Error in Running DTLearner and RTLearner (1 point, 12 comments)
    9. My Results for the four learners. Please check if you guys are getting values somewhat near to these. Exact match may not be there due to randomization. (1 point, 4 comments)
    10. Can we add the assignments and solutions to our public github profile? (0 points, 7 comments)
  29. 26 points, 6 submissions: abiele
    1. Recommended Reading? (13 points, 1 comment)
    2. Number of Indicators Used by Actual Trading Systems (7 points, 6 comments)
    3. Software Install Instructions From TA's Video Not Working (2 points, 2 comments)
    4. Suggest that TA/Instructor Contact Info Should be Added to the Syllabus (2 points, 2 comments)
    5. ML4T Software Setup (1 point, 3 comments)
    6. Where can I find the grading folder? (1 point, 4 comments)
  30. 26 points, 6 submissions: tomatonight
    1. Do we have all the information needed to finish the last project Strategy learner? (15 points, 3 comments)
    2. Does anyone interested in cryptocurrency trading/investing/others? (3 points, 6 comments)
    3. length of portfolio daily return (3 points, 2 comments)
    4. Did Michael Burry, Jamie&Charlie enter the short position too early? (2 points, 4 comments)
    5. where to check participation score (2 points, 1 comment)
    6. Where to collect the midterm exam? (forgot to take it last week) (1 point, 3 comments)
  31. 26 points, 3 submissions: hilo260
    1. Is there a template for optimize_something on GitHub? (14 points, 3 comments)
    2. Marketism project? (8 points, 6 comments)
    3. "Do not change the API" (4 points, 7 comments)
  32. 26 points, 3 submissions: niufen
    1. Windows Server Setup Guide (23 points, 16 comments)
    2. Strategy Learner Adding UserID as Comment (2 points, 2 comments)
    3. Connect to server via Python Error (1 point, 6 comments)
  33. 26 points, 3 submissions: whoyoung99
    1. How much time you spend on Assess Learner? (13 points, 47 comments)
    2. Git clone repository without fork (8 points, 2 comments)
    3. Just for fun (5 points, 1 comment)
  34. 25 points, 8 submissions: SharjeelHanif
    1. When can we discuss defeat learners methods? (10 points, 1 comment)
    2. Are the buffet servers really down? (3 points, 2 comments)
    3. Are the midterm results in proctortrack gone? (3 points, 3 comments)
    4. Will these finance topics be covered on the final? (3 points, 9 comments)
    5. Anyone get set up with Proctortrack? (2 points, 10 comments)
    6. Incentives Quiz Discussion (2-01, Lesson 11.8) (2 points, 3 comments)
    7. Anyone from Houston, TX (1 point, 1 comment)
    8. How can I trace my error back to a line of code? (assess learners) (1 point, 3 comments)
  35. 25 points, 5 submissions: jlamberts3
    1. Conda vs VirtualEnv (7 points, 8 comments)
    2. Cool Portfolio Backtesting Tool (6 points, 6 comments)
    3. Warren Buffett wins $1M bet made a decade ago that the S&P 500 stock index would outperform hedge funds (6 points, 12 comments)
    4. Windows Ubuntu Subsystem Putty Alternative (4 points, 0 comments)
    5. Algorithmic Trading Of Digital Assets (2 points, 0 comments)
  36. 25 points, 4 submissions: suman_paul
    1. Grade statistics (9 points, 3 comments)
    2. Machine Learning book by Mitchell (6 points, 11 comments)
    3. Thank You (6 points, 6 comments)
    4. Assignment1 ready to be cloned? (4 points, 4 comments)
  37. 25 points, 3 submissions: Spareo
    1. Submit Assignments Function (OS X/Linux) (15 points, 6 comments)
    2. Quantsoftware Site down? (8 points, 38 comments)
    3. ML4T_2017Spring folder on Buffet server?? (2 points, 5 comments)
  38. 24 points, 14 submissions: nelsongcg
    1. Is it realistic for us to try to build our own trading bot and profit? (6 points, 21 comments)
    2. Is the risk free rate zero for any country? (3 points, 7 comments)
    3. Models and black swans - discussion (3 points, 0 comments)
    4. Normal distribution assumption for options pricing (2 points, 3 comments)
    5. Technical analysis for cryptocurrency market? (2 points, 4 comments)
    6. A counter argument to models by Nassim Taleb (1 point, 0 comments)
    7. Are we demandas to use the sample for part 1? (1 point, 1 comment)
    8. Benchmark for "trusting" your trading algorithm (1 point, 5 comments)
    9. Don't these two statements on the project description contradict each other? (1 point, 2 comments)
    10. Forgot my TA (1 point, 6 comments)
  39. 24 points, 11 submissions: nurobezede
    1. Best way to obtain survivor bias free stock data (8 points, 1 comment)
    2. Please confirm Midterm is from October 13-16 online with proctortrack. (5 points, 2 comments)
    3. Are these DTlearner Corr values good? (2 points, 6 comments)
    4. Testing gen_data.py (2 points, 3 comments)
    5. BagLearner of Baglearners says 'Object is not callable' (1 point, 8 comments)
    6. DTlearner training RMSE none zero but almost there (1 point, 2 comments)
    7. How to submit analysis using git and confirm it? (1 point, 2 comments)
    8. Passing kwargs to learners in a BagLearner (1 point, 5 comments)
    9. Sampling for bagging tree (1 point, 8 comments)
    10. code failing the 18th test with grade_learners.py (1 point, 6 comments)
  40. 24 points, 4 submissions: AeroZach
    1. questions about how to build a machine learning system that's going to work well in a real market (12 points, 6 comments)
    2. Survivor Bias Free Data (7 points, 5 comments)
    3. Genetic Algorithms for Feature selection (3 points, 5 comments)
    4. How far back can you train? (2 points, 2 comments)
  41. 23 points, 9 submissions: vsrinath6
    1. Participation check #3 - Haven't seen it yet (5 points, 5 comments)
    2. What are the tasks for this week? (5 points, 12 comments)
    3. No projects until after the mid-term? (4 points, 5 comments)
    4. Format / Syllabus for the exams (2 points, 3 comments)
    5. Has there been a Participation check #4? (2 points, 8 comments)
    6. Project 3 not visible on T-Square (2 points, 3 comments)
    7. Assess learners - do we need to check is method implemented for BagLearner? (1 point, 4 comments)
    8. Correct number of days reported in the dataframe (should be the number of trading days between the start date and end date, inclusive). (1 point, 0 comments)
    9. RuntimeError: Invalid DISPLAY variable (1 point, 2 comments)
  42. 23 points, 8 submissions: nick_algorithm
    1. Help with getting Average Daily Return Right (6 points, 7 comments)
    2. Hint for args argument in scipy minimize (5 points, 2 comments)
    3. How do you make money off of highly volatile (high SDDR) stocks? (4 points, 5 comments)
    4. Can We Use Code Obtained from Class To Make Money without Fear of Being Sued (3 points, 6 comments)
    5. Is the Std for Bollinger Bands calculated over the same timespan of the Moving Average? (2 points, 2 comments)
    6. Can't run grade_learners.py but I'm not doing anything different from the last assignment (?) (1 point, 5 comments)
    7. How to determine value at terminal node of tree? (1 point, 1 comment)
    8. Is there a way to get Reddit announcements piped to email (or have a subsequent T-Square announcement published simultaneously) (1 point, 2 comments)
  43. 23 points, 1 submission: gong6
    1. Is manual strategy ready? (23 points, 6 comments)
  44. 21 points, 6 submissions: amchang87
    1. Reason for public reddit? (6 points, 4 comments)
    2. Manual Strategy - 21 day holding Period (4 points, 12 comments)
    3. Sharpe Ratio (4 points, 6 comments)
    4. Manual Strategy - No Position? (3 points, 3 comments)
    5. ML / Manual Trader Performance (2 points, 0 comments)
    6. T-Square Submission Missing? (2 points, 3 comments)
  45. 21 points, 6 submissions: fall2017_ml4t_cs_god
    1. PSA: When typing in code, please use 'formatting help' to see how to make the code read cleaner. (8 points, 2 comments)
    2. Why do Bollinger Bands use 2 standard deviations? (5 points, 20 comments)
    3. How do I log into the [email protected]? (3 points, 1 comment)
    4. Is midterm 2 cumulative? (2 points, 3 comments)
    5. Where can we learn about options? (2 points, 2 comments)
    6. How do you calculate the analysis statistics for bps and manual strategy? (1 point, 1 comment)
  46. 21 points, 5 submissions: Jmitchell83
    1. Manual Strategy Grades (12 points, 9 comments)
    2. two-factor (3 points, 6 comments)
    3. Free to use volume? (2 points, 1 comment)
    4. Is MC1-Project-1 different than assess_portfolio? (2 points, 2 comments)
    5. Online Participation Checks (2 points, 4 comments)
  47. 21 points, 5 submissions: Sergei_B
    1. Do we need to worry about missing data for Asset Portfolio? (14 points, 13 comments)
    2. How do you get data from yahoo in panda? the sample old code is below: (2 points, 3 comments)
    3. How to fix import pandas as pd ImportError: No module named pandas? (2 points, 4 comments)
    4. Python Practice exam Question 48 (2 points, 2 comments)
    5. Mac: "virtualenv : command not found" (1 point, 2 comments)
  48. 21 points, 3 submissions: mharrow3
    1. First time reddit user .. (17 points, 37 comments)
    2. Course errors/types (2 points, 2 comments)
    3. Install course software on macOS using Vagrant .. (2 points, 0 comments)
  49. 20 points, 9 submissions: iceguyvn
    1. Manual strategy implementation for future projects (4 points, 15 comments)
    2. Help with correlation calculation (3 points, 15 comments)
    3. Help! maximum recursion depth exceeded (3 points, 10 comments)
    4. Help: how to index by date? (2 points, 4 comments)
    5. How to attach a 1D array to a 2D array? (2 points, 2 comments)
    6. How to set a single cell in a 2D DataFrame? (2 points, 4 comments)
    7. Next assignment after marketsim? (2 points, 4 comments)
    8. Pythonic way to detect the first row? (1 point, 6 comments)
    9. Questions regarding seed (1 point, 1 comment)
  50. 20 points, 3 submissions: JetsonDavis
    1. Push back assignment 3? (10 points, 14 comments)
    2. Final project (9 points, 3 comments)
    3. Numpy versions (1 point, 2 comments)
  51. 20 points, 2 submissions: pharmerino
    1. assess_portfolio test cases (16 points, 88 comments)
    2. ML4T Assignments (4 points, 6 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. tuckerbalch (2296 points, 1185 comments)
  2. davebyrd (1033 points, 466 comments)
  3. yokh_cs7646 (320 points, 177 comments)
  4. rgraziano3 (266 points, 147 comments)
  5. j0shj0nes (264 points, 148 comments)
  6. i__want__piazza (236 points, 127 comments)
  7. swamijay (227 points, 116 comments)
  8. _ant0n_ (205 points, 149 comments)
  9. ml4tstudent (204 points, 117 comments)
  10. gatechben (179 points, 107 comments)
  11. BNielson (176 points, 108 comments)
  12. jameschanx (176 points, 94 comments)
  13. Artmageddon (167 points, 83 comments)
  14. htrajan (162 points, 81 comments)
  15. boyko11 (154 points, 99 comments)
  16. alyssa_p_hacker (146 points, 80 comments)
  17. log_base_pi (141 points, 80 comments)
  18. Ran__Ran (139 points, 99 comments)
  19. johnsmarion (136 points, 86 comments)
  20. jgorman30_gatech (135 points, 102 comments)
  21. dyllll (125 points, 91 comments)
  22. MikeLachmayr (123 points, 95 comments)
  23. awhoof (113 points, 72 comments)
  24. SharjeelHanif (106 points, 59 comments)
  25. larrva (101 points, 69 comments)
  26. augustinius (100 points, 52 comments)
  27. oimesbcs (99 points, 67 comments)
  28. vansh21k (98 points, 62 comments)
  29. W1redgh0st (97 points, 70 comments)
  30. ybai67 (96 points, 41 comments)
  31. JuanCarlosKuriPinto (95 points, 54 comments)
  32. acschwabe (93 points, 58 comments)
  33. pharmerino (92 points, 47 comments)
  34. jgeiger (91 points, 28 comments)
  35. Zapurza (88 points, 70 comments)
  36. jyoms (87 points, 55 comments)
  37. omscs_zenan (87 points, 44 comments)
  38. nurobezede (85 points, 64 comments)
  39. BelaZhu (83 points, 50 comments)
  40. jason_gt (82 points, 36 comments)
  41. shuang379 (81 points, 64 comments)
  42. ggatech (81 points, 51 comments)
  43. nitinkodial_gatech (78 points, 59 comments)
  44. harshsikka123 (77 points, 55 comments)
  45. bkeenan7 (76 points, 49 comments)
  46. moxyll (76 points, 32 comments)
  47. nelsongcg (75 points, 53 comments)
  48. nickzelei (75 points, 41 comments)
  49. hunter2omscs (74 points, 29 comments)
  50. pointblank41 (73 points, 36 comments)
  51. zheweisun (66 points, 48 comments)
  52. bs_123 (66 points, 36 comments)
  53. storytimeuva (66 points, 36 comments)
  54. sva6 (66 points, 31 comments)
  55. bhrolenok (66 points, 27 comments)
  56. lingkaizuo (63 points, 46 comments)
  57. Marvel_this (62 points, 36 comments)
  58. agifft3_omscs (62 points, 35 comments)
  59. ssung40 (61 points, 47 comments)
  60. amchang87 (61 points, 32 comments)
  61. joshuak_gatech (61 points, 30 comments)
  62. fall2017_ml4t_cs_god (60 points, 50 comments)
  63. ccrouch8 (60 points, 45 comments)
  64. nick_algorithm (60 points, 29 comments)
  65. JetsonDavis (59 points, 35 comments)
  66. yjacket103 (58 points, 36 comments)
  67. hilo260 (58 points, 29 comments)
  68. coolwhip1234 (58 points, 15 comments)
  69. chvbs2000 (57 points, 49 comments)
  70. suman_paul (57 points, 29 comments)
  71. masterm (57 points, 23 comments)
  72. RolfKwakkelaar (55 points, 32 comments)
  73. rpb3 (55 points, 23 comments)
  74. venkatesh8 (54 points, 30 comments)
  75. omscs_avik (53 points, 37 comments)
  76. bman8810 (52 points, 31 comments)
  77. snladak (51 points, 31 comments)
  78. dfihn3 (50 points, 43 comments)
  79. mlcrypto (50 points, 32 comments)
  80. omscs-student (49 points, 26 comments)
  81. NellVega (48 points, 32 comments)
  82. booglespace (48 points, 23 comments)
  83. ccortner3 (48 points, 23 comments)
  84. caa5042 (47 points, 34 comments)
  85. gcalma3 (47 points, 25 comments)
  86. krushnatmore (44 points, 32 comments)
  87. sn_48 (43 points, 22 comments)
  88. thenewprofessional (43 points, 16 comments)
  89. urider (42 points, 33 comments)
  90. gatech-raleighite (42 points, 30 comments)
  91. chrisong2017 (41 points, 26 comments)
  92. ProudRamblinWreck (41 points, 24 comments)
  93. kramey8 (41 points, 24 comments)
  94. coderafk (40 points, 28 comments)
  95. niufen (40 points, 23 comments)
  96. tholladay3 (40 points, 23 comments)
  97. SaberCrunch (40 points, 22 comments)
  98. gnr11 (40 points, 21 comments)
  99. nadav3 (40 points, 18 comments)
  100. gt7431a (40 points, 16 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. [Project Questions] Unit Tests for assess_portfolio assignment by reyallan (58 points, 52 comments)
  2. [Project Questions] Unit Tests for optimize_something assignment by agifft3_omscs (53 points, 94 comments)
  3. Proper git workflow by jan-laszlo (43 points, 19 comments)
  4. Exam 2 Information by yokh_cs7646 (39 points, 40 comments)
  5. A little more on Pandas indexing/slicing ([] vs ix vs iloc vs loc) and numpy shapes by davebyrd (37 points, 10 comments)
  6. Project 1 Megathread (assess_portfolio) by davebyrd (34 points, 466 comments)
  7. defeat_learner test case by swamijay (34 points, 38 comments)
  8. Project 2 Megathread (optimize_something) by tuckerbalch (33 points, 475 comments)
  9. project 3 megathread (assess_learners) by tuckerbalch (27 points, 1130 comments)
  10. Deadline extension? by johannes_92 (26 points, 40 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 34 points: jgeiger's comment in QLearning Robot project megathread
  2. 31 points: coolwhip1234's comment in QLearning Robot project megathread
  3. 30 points: tuckerbalch's comment in Why Professor is usually late for class?
  4. 23 points: davebyrd's comment in Deadline extension?
  5. 20 points: jason_gt's comment in What would be a good quiz question regarding The Big Short?
  6. 19 points: yokh_cs7646's comment in For online students: Participation check #2
  7. 17 points: i__want__piazza's comment in project 3 megathread (assess_learners)
  8. 17 points: nathakhanh2's comment in Project 2 Megathread (optimize_something)
  9. 17 points: pharmerino's comment in Midterm study Megathread
  10. 17 points: tuckerbalch's comment in Midterm grades posted to T-Square
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